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WATER TREATMENT AND REUSE IN MÉXICO. JORGE ALBERTO MENDOZA PÉREZ ESCUELA NACIONAL DE CIENCIAS BIOLÓGICAS DEL INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL. I ndex. General Information Overview of Water supply in México and collected wastewater . Wastewater treatment in México and reuse.

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Water treatment and reuse in m xico

WATER TREATMENT AND REUSE IN MÉXICO.

JORGE ALBERTO MENDOZA PÉREZ

ESCUELA NACIONAL DE CIENCIAS BIOLÓGICAS DEL INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL.


I ndex

Index

  • General Information

  • Overview of Water supply in México and collected wastewater.

  • Wastewater treatment in México and reuse.

  • Mexican regulatory framework.

  • Case of study: Wastewater treatment plant from El Colegio de México A.C.: a successful but realistic story


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

Puente de Dios, San Luis Potosí. ImagetakenfromMexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018


1 general information

1. General Information.

  • In 2013 México had a populationnear 118 millionpeople (117,053,750) Source: CONAPO 2010-2030 .

  • For 2015, at leasta 94% of thepopulation in Mexicowillhave potable water.*

  • In thesameyear (2015) we hope that 91% of ourpopulationwillhaveaccess to sewerservice and more than72% of rural dwellerswillhavewater service.*

  • But, ifMéxico stillfollowingthecurrenttrend of consumption and populationgrowth, in 15 years (2030) the country willface a criticalsituation of water shortage.*

  • *Source:FEA and CEMDA, 2006. www.agua.org.mx and CONAGUA , Waterstatistics in México, 2013.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

Average natural water availability per capita in some countries (m3 /capita · year)

Source: FAO 2013 : Aquastatdata base


Mexican xiii administrative hydrologic regions ahr source conagua water atlas in m xico 2013

Mexican XIII Administrative-HydrologicRegions (AHR). Source: CONAGUA.Water Atlas in México, 2013.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

Demographic, socioeconomic and renewable water data in AHR, 2013.

Source: CONAGUA , Waterstatistics in México, 2013.


Water availability in m xico by type of source

Water availability in México by type of source.

Source: FEA and CEMDA, 2006. www.agua.org.mx; CONAGUA, Waterstatistics in México, 2013; MexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

México holds approximately 0.1% of total freshwater available globally, which determines that a significant percentage of the territory is classified as semi-desert area. It is the reason why water is considered a strategic factor for the overall development of the country.

In the world rankings, México is considered a country with low water availability. Across the country it rains approximately 1,488,819 Hm3of water each year, with a normal rainfall annual average of 760 mm.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

  • In México our Federal Constitution recognize and protect the human right for water so the Mexican government is required to guarantee this right and through the laws define just and fair ways for access, provision and proper use.

  • México has faced in recent years unprecedented problems of water security related to water supply, lack of technology development, shortage in several zones of the country and even privatization policies that have generated a high cost in social and human terms.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

2. Overview of Water supply in México and collected wastewater.

Cascada Apatlaco, Puebla. ImagetakenfromMexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018


Improvement of water supply and s ewer service in m xico

Improvement of Watersupply and Sewerservice in México

%

year

potable watercoverage

Sewerservicecoverage

Source:MexicanNationalWaterProgram, 2014.-2018


Water use in m xico

Water use in México.

Source: CONAGUA , Waterstatistics in México, 2013.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

Water Stress Index= 100 x

Consumptivewatervolume

Renewablewatervolume

Highest stress

Without stress

Source: IADB, Wastewatertreatment in México, 2013.


Collected wastewater source conagua water atlas in m xico 2013

CollectedWastewater. Source: CONAGUA.Water Atlas in México, 2013.

*withoutanykind of partialtreatment.. **Onlyprimarytreatment


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

In México almost a 40% of the collected wastewater is treated but no more than a 15% reach the expected quality for reuse or returning to water resources.

Sistema Cutzamala. ImagetakenfromtheMexicanNationalWaterProgram, 2014-2018.

The pollution caused by discharges of wastewater and poor quality treated wastewater in our aquifer resources, has damaged at least the 24% of our water bodies of immediate use.


3 wastewater treatment in m xico and reuse

3. Wastewater treatment in México and reuse.

Source: Wastewater treatment plant San Francisco de los Romo Aguascalientes, México, 2008


Wastewater treatment coverage in m xico

Wastewatertreatmentcoverage in México

Reported as 100%

Higherthan 60%

Abovethe 40%

Lowerthan 40%

Source: IADB, Wastewatertreatment in México, 2013.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

Statistics of wastewatertreatmentplantsoperating in México

Source: CONAGUA. General Division of Drinking Water, Sewerage and Sanitation. 2013.


Wastewater treatment level data from non municipal systems mainly industries

WastewaterTreatmentlevel (Data from non municipal systemsmainly industries)

Source: IADB, Wastewatertreatment in México, 2013 and CONAGUA , Waterstatistics in México, 2013.


Municipal wastewater treatment technology

Municipal wastewatertreatmenttechnology

Source: Lahera Ramón, V. 2010


Water wastewater reuse in m xico

Water (wastewater) reuse in México

  • 40-45% of wastewater treated or not is used for irrigation.

  • 30-35% is available for returning up to water resources and since 2010 at least 5-10% is used to recharge groundwater aquifers.

  • 10-15% is diluted with storm tank water for different uses mainly as primary service water.

  • Also is used for co-mingled effluent in rivers and in natural runoff.

  • No more than 10% is treated with the required quality for industrial and domestic reuse, without human contact as primary service water.

Source: Bunge, V. 2012; Lahera Ramón, V. 2010 and CONAGUA. General Division of Drinking Water, Sewerage and Sanitation. 2013.


Causes

Causes

  • LACK OF MONEY

  • LACK OF TECHNOLOGY and TRANSDISCIPLINARITY

  • BAD COORDINATION and ORGANIZATION BETWEEN SOCIETY COMPONENTS (GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH CENTERS, NGOs and CITIZENS)

  • ABSENCE OF REGULATIONS and LAWS

  • POOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESSES

  • LACK OF EDUCATION and TRAINING

  • CORRUPTION


4 mexican regulatory framework

4. Mexican regulatory framework.

The National Water Commission (CONAGUA) is the responsible for integrating and developing the National Water Program under the terms thereof and of the Planning Act, as well as updating and monitor its

implementation, proposing criteria and guidelines

that allow for unit and coherence to the actions of the

Mexican government in reference to water as a national

resource and their inherent public assets.

Source: MexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018


National water program 2014 2018

NationalWaterProgram 2014-2018

The National Water Program (NWP) from 2014 to 2018 shows the essential value of water as a strategic element for attendance the basic needs of mexican population and promote the development of economic activities of the country in a framework that puts the care and preservation of the environment for future generations. This program is directly related with the National Development Plan 2013-2018.


Semarnat

SEMARNAT

The Mexican Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT) is responsible for reviewing the maximum permissible limits of pollutants currently included in the schedule for particular conditions of discharge into water bodies in the permits issued for that purpose.

Source: MexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018


Current regulations

Current regulations

México has established a regulatory framework that regulates wastewater discharges to receiving bodies through the following rules:

NOM 001.- Establishes the maximum permissible limits of pollutants in wastewater discharges into national waters or assets.

NOM 002.-Establishes the maximum permissible limits of pollutants in the wastewater discharge into the urban or municipal sewer systems .

NOM 003.- Establishes the maximum permissible limits for contaminants in treated wastewater reused in public services.

NOM 004.-Establishes specifications and maximum permissible limits of pollutants in sludge and biosolids for its use and disposal.

Source: SEMARNAT, Envioronmentalregulatoryframework, 2013.


Reuse program for treated wastewater

Reuse program for treated wastewater.

Source: MexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018

Basic points:

I.- Reusetreatedwastewaterforirrigation.

II.- Reuse of treatedwastewater in industries promotingexchangingwaterforprimaryserviceswithtreatedwater.

III.- Construction and expansion of networks of treated wastewater to incorporate effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants in order to reuse water in industrial parks and for recharging groundwater aquifers. This action will be encouraged, once they comply with the relevant environmental quality provisions


Current and future strategies

Current and FutureStrategies.

To better the current situation of our infrastructure for wastewater treatment and to achieve future plans on the reuse of treated wastewater, a series of strategies shall be followed:

  • Wastewater Collectors and treatment plants will be built with a holistic approach to watershed and aquifer.

  • It will be given a strong impulse to the reuse of treated wastewater, particularly for agricultural irrigation and industrial processes.

  • It has to be promoted with the states and municipalities, the proper functioning of the existing wastewater treatment plants, which means operating them efficiently and continuously.

  • Also It must be promoted that the industries treat their wastewater and improve the effectiveness of systems.

Source: MexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018


Immediate actions

Immediateactions.

  • Improve current systems

  • Build new systems with better technology

  • Search for new clean energy sources

  • Reach the 100% reuse of treated wastewater.

  • Design and apply new regulations to improve and better the management of water resources

  • Include more pollutants to be monitored and decrease the maximum permissible limits of them in those discharges which go directly to water resources

  • Increase the sustainability of our water management proceedings

Source: MexicanNationalWaterProgram 2014.-2018


Requirements

Requirements.

  • MONEY

  • TECHNOLOGY and TRANSDISCIPLINARITY

  • PERMANENT ASSOCIATION and BACKFEED BETWEEN SOCIETY COMPONENTS (GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH CENTERS, NGOs and CITIZENS)

  • REGULATIONS and LAWS

  • DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESSES

  • EDUCATION and TRAINING

  • ETHICS (VANISHING OF CORRUPTION)


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

5. Case of study: Wastewater treatment plant from El Colegio de México A.C.: a successful but realistic story.

  • El Colegio de México, A.C. (commonly known as Colmex, English: The College of Mexico) is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in  social sciences and humanities. he college was founded in 1940 by the Mexican Federal Government, the Bank of México (Banco de México), the National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), and the Fondo de CulturaEconómica.


Environmental certification

Environmentalcertification.

  • In 2011 El Colegio de México as part of its planning to obtain the environmental certification from the government of the Federal District (D.F.) started a project for the construction, operation and control of its own wastewater plant.


Colegio de m xico wwtp line diagram

Colegio de México WWTP Line Diagram


System parameters

Systemparameters


Costs

Costs


Water wastewater reuse

Water (wastewater) reuse


Almost 40 of maintenance is used for membranes irrigation system and sanitary water supply bombs

Almost 40% of maintenanceisusedformembranes, irrigationsystem and sanitarywatersupply (bombs)


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • An efficiently wastewater treatment plant will have at the beginning a large inversion recovery cost and it will be necessary invest in training the personal in charge.

  • Water reuse of course will bring saving money but the initial inversion recovery and the annual maintenance cost will avoid for a time period get benefits.

  • New technology is expensive but it is necessary in order to keep, take care and recover our water resources


Thanks a lot

THANKS A LOT !!!!

ANY QUESTION ?????


References

REFERENCES.

  • Cantor, J.; Sutton, P.M.; Steinheber, R.; Novachis, L. (2000) Industrial Biotreatment Plant

  • Capacity Expansion and Upgrading Through Application of Membrane Biomass-Effluent

  • Separation. Proceedings of the WEF 73rd Annual Conference & Exposition, Anaheim, CA.

  • Hall, E.R.; Bérubé, P.R.; Sutton, P.M. (2006) Membrane Bioreactors for Anaerobic Treatment of

  • Wastewaters. Project 02-CTS-4, Water Environment Research Foundation.

  • Knoblock, M.D.; Sutton, P.M.; Mishra, P.N.; Gupta, K.; Janson, A. (1994) MembraneBiological

  • Reactor System for Treatment of Oily Wastewaters. Water Environment Research, 66 (2),

  • pp.133-139.

  • Le-Clech, P.; Fane, A.; Leslie, G. (2005) MBR Focus: TheOperatorsPerspective. Filtration &

  • Separation, June pp. 20-23.

  • Lei, E.; Bérubé, P.R. (2004) Impact of Membrane Configuration and Hydrodynamic Conditions

  • on the Permeate Flux in Submerged Membrane Systems for Drinking Water Treatment.

  • Proceedings AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX.


Water treatment and reuse in m xico

  • Conagua (2012a), “Situación del Subsector de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento”, Edición 2012.

  • Conagua (2012b), “Agenda del Agua 2030”, 2011.

  • Conagua, “Asociación Público-Privada. Agua Potable y Saneamiento”, Reunión Nacional de Infraestructura Hidráulica 2012.

  • Conagua, “Situación del Subsector de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento”, Edición 2013.

  • Conagua, “Proyectos Estratégicos de Agua Potable, Drenaje y Saneamiento”, Programa Nacional de Infraestructura 2007-2012, 20 de septiembre 2012.

  • Conagua, “Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales Atotonilco”, 2012.

  • Conagua, “Experiencias en la Instrumentación de Acciones de Saneamiento. Situación actual y principales proyectos de infraestructura en México”, Octubre 2010.

  • Conagua, Aneas, CMIC, “IV Reunión Nacional de Infraestructura Hidráulica 2012”, Agosto 2012.

  • IMTA, “El reúso del agua residual tratada en México”, Seminario Internacional sobre Métodos Naturales para el Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales. 2008.

  • Conagua, “Programa Nacional Hídrico 2007-2012. Principales logros”. Julio 2012.

  • Conagua, “Programa Nacional Hidráulico 2001-2006”. 2006.

  • Conagua, “Situación del Subsector Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento”, Edición 2006.

  • Gobierno de la República, “Programa Sectorial de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales 2013-2018”, 2013.


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