Ensuring Access to the General Education Curriculum in Mathematics

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Ensuring Access to the General Education Curriculum in Mathematics

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Ensuring Access to the General Education Curriculum in Mathematics

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Ensuring Access to the General Education Curriculum in Mathematics

- Use NCSC mathematics resources to add supports and accommodations to a gen ed lesson for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
- Reflect on current practices that might be unintentional barriers for student access to the general ed curriculum.

- Identify the grade level content standard(s) in the gen ed lesson.
- Identify student outcomes or learning objectives in the gen ed lesson.
- Determine Strand, Instructional Families, and grade level CCCs related to the standard(s) and learning objectives.
- List the instructional activities for All students.
4a. Determine individual student barriers to accessing the instruction, participating in instructional activities, and demonstrating learning.

5. Determine supports for SCD.

6. Use NCSC curriculum and instructionalresources.

Step1: Identify the grade level content standard(s) in the gen ed lesson.

- If the standard is not listed, go to step 2.
Step 2: Identify the student outcomes and learning objectives in the gen ed lesson.

- Guiding questions:
- What are the desired outcomes for ALL students?
- How will students demonstrate their knowledge and skills?
- What are the observable student performances?

- Use Content Modules to clarify content.

Step 3: Determine Strand, Instructional Families, and grade level CCCs related to the standard(s) and learning objectives.

- Identify the Strand: 1) Geometry 2) Numbers and Operations 3) Measurement 4) Patterns, Relationships and Functions 5) Data, Probability, and Statistics.
- Identify the Instructional Family(s).
- Identify the CCCs beforestudent’s grade level for support and afterstudent’s grade level for stretch.
- Embed those CCCs in the lesson, if appropriate.
- Use Content Modules to define terms
and to clarify content.

Step 4: Identify the instructional activities for All students.

- Identify the instructional activities that move students toward achievement of the objectives.
- Typical classroom activities. i.e., lecture, taking notes, small and large group work, etc.

- Use Curriculum Resource Guide for additional ideas on how the content is taught in a general education classroom.
- Pay particular attention to UDL (representation, action and expression, and engagement) in the lesson. Add UDL activities that expand possibilities:
- for student interaction with materials and activities
- for student response options
- for gaining and maintaining student interest

- Multiple Means of Engagement give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge and provide options for comprehension by the highlighting of critical features.
- Multiple Means of Representation give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge and provide options for expressive skills and fluency.
- Multiple Means of Expression provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know and provide options for recruiting interest, sustaining effort, and self regulation.

Step 4a: Determine individual studentbarriers to accessing instruction, participating in activities, and demonstrating learning.

- Examine all activities.
- List individual student barriers.
- Consider all students.
- Use UDL principles.
- Add activities as necessary.

- Is the student actively participating in each part of the instructional activity?
- Are the activities moving the student toward outcomes linked to the grade level content standard(s)?
- Can the student access instruction?
- Is targeted information provided in student’s mode of communication?
- Can the student interact with instruction and materials?
- Does the student have the means to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and concepts?
- What will engage the student in the activity?
- How will the student remain motivated long enough to learn?

Examples of Additional Considerations for Emerging Readers and Communicators

- Multiple means of Engagement: Show the end first; present the concrete example of the graph; with the end in mind, have students at multiple levels solve in multiple ways; count or solve using a calculator, graph paper, 2 and 3 dimensional manipulative materials
- Multiple Representation: 2 dimensional paper; 3 dimensional objects; etc.
- Multiple means of Expression: Picture problem choices: present 2 choices of possible correct responses and include words or pictures, tactile representations

Step 5: Determine student supports.

- Communication
- How does the student communicate with the teacher, in small groups, and with partners, etc.
- Is the salient vocabulary for the lesson included in the students’ communication systems?

- UDL: Multiple means of representation, expression, and engagement
- Other

Step 6: Use NCSC Curriculum and InstructionalResources.

- Content Modules– Explanation of difficult or complex mathematical /ELA concepts
- Curriculum Resource Guides(CR) - Examples of how academic content is taught in general education
- Element Cards - Description of how to teach specific concepts and skills for remediation of skills
- MASSIs and LASSIs – Intensive, scripted instructional lessons in math and ELA that include evidence-based practices
- Instructional Resource Guides- Evidence-based prompting and instructional strategies
- UDL Units- Models of universally designed instruction that illustrate how to target the CCCs within general education lessons

Let’s Practice!

Begin with a Gen Ed Lesson

Step 1: Identify the grade level content Standard(s).

Step 2: Identify student outcomes or learning objectives in the gen ed lesson.

Students will be able to:

- Identify a pattern involving the number of tiles required to form a border around a pool with length l and width w.
- Write a symbolic expression that describes the number of tiles needed to form a border around a pool.
- Key words in learning objectives:
- Pattern
- Length
- Width
- Symbolic expression

- Key words in learning objectives:

Step 3:

Determine the Strand, Instructional Families, and CCCs related to the Standard(s) and Learning Objectives.

Number Operations

- Geometry

- Measurement

- Data, Probability and Statistics

Step 3: Strand, Instructional Families, and CCCsStrand: Patterns, Relations, and FunctionsInstructional Family: Problem Solving and Using VariablesGrade level CCCs:6.PRF.1d1and 6.PRF.2a2 and 6.PRF.2a3

CCCs:

- 6.PRF.1d1
- Solve real-world single step linear equations
- 6.EE.7

- Solve real-world single step linear equations
- 6.PRF.2a2
- Use variable to represent numbers and write expressions when solving real-world problems
- 6.EE.6
- Use Content Module to define variable and expressions.

- 6.EE.6

- Use variable to represent numbers and write expressions when solving real-world problems
- 6.PRF.2a3
- Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another
- 6.EE.9

- Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another

Core Content Connectors

Afterstudent grade level for stretch

- CCCs beforestudent’s grade level for support
- 2.PRF.1c5: Write of select an equation representing the problem and its solution.
- 2.OA.1

- 4.PRF.1e3: Solve multiplicative comparisons with an unknown using up to 2-digit numbers with information presented in a graph or word problem.
- 4.OA.2

- 2.PRF.1c5: Write of select an equation representing the problem and its solution.
- CCCs after student grade level for stretch
- 7.PEF.1g1: Solve real-world multi-step problems using whole numbers
- 7.EE.3

- 7.PEF.1g1: Solve real-world multi-step problems using whole numbers

From Learning Objectives:

- Pattern is a discernible regularity in the world or in a manmade design. As such, the elements of a pattern repeat in a predictable manner.
- Length is the longest dimension of an object.
- Widthis the distance from side to side.
- Symbolic(symbol)is something that represents an idea, process, or a physical entity. The purpose of a symbol is to communicate meaning.
- Expression is a phrase made up of variables and/or numbers and symbols. Example: 3x + 4
From CCCs:

- Variableis a letter that represents a value.
- Linear Equation is an equation whose solution falls on a line when graphed. (Priority standard)

Step 4: List the instructional activities for ALL students.

- In large group, teacher demonstrates and students predict the possible dimensions of a pool with the area of 36ft X 36ft.
- In large group, teacher guides students through predicting the number of tiles it would take to surround the 36ft X 36ft pool.
- Work in small group.
- Predict the number of tiles that would be needed to put a border of tiles around the entire pool.
- Participate in small group to build a pool 36 sq. feet on poster board
- Math question: what are the possible dimensions for the pool using only whole numbers. 1ft X 36ft? 2ft X 18ft? 3ft X 12ft? 4ft X 9ft? 6ft X 6ft?

- Participate in small group to build a pool 36 sq. feet on poster board
- Math question: what are the possible dimensions of the pool using only whole numbers. 1ft X 36ft? 2ft X 18ft? 3ft X 12ft? 4ft X 9ft? 6ft X 6ft?

- Participate in small group in using algebra tiles to make border around the pool with each tile representing 1 ft. X 1 ft.
- Students predict the number of tiles that would be needed for tiles around the entire pool.

Step 4a: Determine individual student barriers to accessing instruction, participating in activities, and demonstrating learning.

- Make a list for individual students according to the gen ed instructional activities.

- Provide multiple means of representation
- Provide multiple means of expression
- Provide multiple means of engagement

- Can the student access instruction? Is targeted information provided in student’s mode of communication?
- Can the student interactwith instruction and materials? Does the student have the means to demonstrateknowledge, skills, and concepts acquired?
- What will engage the student in the activity? How will the student remain motivated long enough to learn?

http://bookbuilder.cast.org/

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Step 5: Determine access supports needed for SCD.

- What supports are needed for students to participate in and learn from the instructional activities?

Step 6: Use InstructionalResources.

- Content Modules– Explanation of difficult or complex mathematical /ELA concepts
- Curriculum Resource Guide(CR) - Examples of how academic content is taught in general education
- Element Cards - Description of how to teach specific concepts and skills for remediation of skills
- MASSIs – Intensive scripted instructional lessons that include evidence-based practices for remediation of skills
- Instructional Resource Guide- Evidence-based prompting and instructional strategies
- UDL Units- Models of universally designed instruction that illustrate how to target the CCCs within general education lessons

- Identify the grade level content standard(s) in the gen ed lesson.
- Identify student outcomes or learning objectives in the gen ed lesson.
- Determine Strand, Instructional Families, and grade level CCCs related to the standard(s) and learning objectives.
- List the instructional activities for All students.
4a. Determine individual student barriers to accessing the instruction, participating in instructional activities, and demonstrating learning.

5. Determine supports for SCD.

6. Use NCSC curriculum and instructionalresources.

Viewing students through the lens of a disability label may increase the likelihood of misjudging capabilities and bar some students from opportunities to learn what other students their age are learning

- (Jorgensen, McSheehan & Sonnenmeier, 2007)

- What do I assume about the student’s capability?
- How do I interpretlack of engagement and/or disruptive behaviors?
- Do I assume the student doesn’t know something?
- Do I connect skills and facts to big ideas?
- Do I start with the standard and work toward skills and concepts?
- Do I provide supports so students not only complete an activity but also learn the content?
- Do I provide students ways to interact
with materials and activities?

- Use NCSC resources to build-in supports and accommodations to a gen ed lesson for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
- Continue to reflect on current practices that might be unintentional barriers for access to the general ed curriculum.

- Denham, A. & Lewis, P. (2006). The Application of Universal Design for Learning in the Classroom for students with the most significant disabilities. SPLASH Training. Human Development Institute, University of Kentucky. Lexington, KY.
- Denham, A. (2004). Pathways to Learning for Students with Cognitive Challenges: Reading, Writing and Presenting. Interdisciplinary Human Development Institute, University of Kentucky. [Online] Available: http://www.ihdi.uky.edu/IEI/
- Clayton, J, Michael Burdge, Anne Denham, Harold L. Kleinert, Jacqui Kearns “A Four Step Process for Accessing the General Curriculum for Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities” Teaching Exceptional Children v. 38, n. 5, pp. 20-27.
- Jorgenson, C (2005). “The Least Dangerous Assumption: A Challenge to Create a New Paradigm” A Resource for Families & Others Interested in Down Syndrome & Developmental Disabilities v.6, n.3.
- Kearns et al. (2010). Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: An Educator's Guide.
- Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. (2005). “Understanding by Design”. Alexandria, VA.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
- http://www.learner.org/workshops/algebra/workshop1/lessonplan1.html
- http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lessons.aspx
- http://www.teachersdomain.org/

Ensuring Access to the General Education Curriculum