Bertus wennink thea hilhorst international advisory group meeting 28 29th june 2010 oxford
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Strengthening Women’s Livelihoods through Collective Action: Market Opportunities in Smallholder Agriculture Research Design & Methodology. Bertus Wennink & Thea Hilhorst International Advisory Group Meeting 28 – 29th June 2010, Oxford. Outline. Research Steps & Planning (recall)

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Bertus Wennink & Thea Hilhorst International Advisory Group Meeting 28 – 29th June 2010, Oxford

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Bertus wennink thea hilhorst international advisory group meeting 28 29th june 2010 oxford

Strengthening Women’s Livelihoods through Collective Action: Market Opportunities in Smallholder AgricultureResearch Design & Methodology

Bertus Wennink & Thea Hilhorst

International Advisory Group Meeting

28 – 29th June 2010, Oxford


Outline

Outline

  • Research Steps & Planning (recall)

  • Resources available for research

  • Selection of Sub-sectors

  • Inventory of Collective Action

  • Gendered mapping of sub-sectors

  • Survey

  • Focus Group Discussions & Case studies

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Research steps as in proposal

Research steps (as in proposal)

  • Step 1Selection of sub-sectors (markets) for in-depth analysis –informed by SD; gendered sub-sector and supply chain analysis (2010)

  • Step 2 Primary data collection:

  • Analysis of existing forms of collective action; costs and benefits for male and female members, and identification of gender-specific barriers of access to collective action (2010 + case studies 2011)

  • Assessment of interventions for enabling gender equitable collective action to improve market access and bargaining power (2011: outcome mapping)

  • Step 3Identification of new practices for effective collective action of women around market access informed by research findings (2011)


Resources available for research

Resources available for research

  • Total budget: $410.000

    • BMGF: $390.000 (40% of total project budget)

    • KIT own resources:+/- $30.000

  • Allocation/division of resources:

  • KIT Research team: 23% (132 days in total)

  • Country research teams 49% : ( 2 pp/country each team has 210 days in total) –about 50 already used

  • Travel budget: 14% (= about 3 field visits)

  • Survey: 14% (3 countries) $18700/ country

  • Period available for research: 18 months (January 2010– July 2011)


Research steps phase 1

Research Steps –phase 1

Choice of Countries & Regions

I. Selection of Sub-sectors

Gendered Mapping of Selected Sub-sectors

II. Inventory of Types of Collective Action

Mapping of Primary Level CA in ‘Districts’ etc.

Literature Review

Listing & Sampling of CAs

III. Survey

100 Coll. Acts & 10% Members/Non-mbs

Identification of Issues & Cases for FGDs & Studies

IV. Focus Group Discussions 2010

2009

Completed April 2010

Start April 2010

May - June 2010

Planning Sep - Nov 2010

Start Feb 2010

Start-up phase 2:

effective interventions

2011

Case studies 2011

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Process for selection of sub sectors february april 2010

Process for Selection of sub-sectors (February - April 2010)

  • Steps

    • Inventory of sub-sectors by researchers (secondary data) long list

    • Inventory of sub-sectors by participants in stakeholder dialogue  new long list oradd to long list

    • Assessment of sub-sectors by SD participants according to:

      • Actual women’s participation (labor and income)

      • Actual market size (expectations on sustained growth)

    • Crossing of the two criteria for each sub-sector (matrix)

    • Selection of actual ‘high potential’ sub-sectors by the stakeholders with presence of collective action short list


Selection of sub sectors ctd

Selection of Sub-sectors (ctd)

Matrix for selection of sub-sectors

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Selected sub sectors

Selected Sub-sectors

* Gender segregation; but changing + implications of market demand/ technology change

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Selected sub sectors ctd

Selected Sub-sectors (ctd)

Tiger nuts

Green gram

Allan blackia nuts

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Remarks on process ss selection

Remarks on process SS selection

  • In project design: SS selection informed by SD participants (to comment on/add to proposal by researchers); change at AA workshop SS selection decided by participants SD (researchers narrowed down from 4 to 3) – more engagement, but implications for research design; research into SS had to start later than anticipated

  • Existence of Collective to be key criteria – but was it always sufficiently taken into account?

  • Intention: Actual economic importance => discussion more on potential economic importance? – Also because difficult in practice to obtain secondary data on economic potential and women participation (at the regional level)

  • SD was much more time & resource consuming than anticipated; during workshop: not enough time left for full inventory CA and gendered mapping, identifying locations);

  • Communications lines/ planning became “complex”: confusing for research team regarding who was deciding on what; mixed messages


Inventory of types forms of collective action

Inventory of Types & Forms of Collective Action

According to the chain functions:

Operators/operations: production, processing & transport, and marketing

Supporters/support services: groupings around inputs; training & advice (e.g. farmer field schools), and credit & savings

According to forms:

Status: formal & informal

Gender: men-only, women-only or mixed

Location (geographic)

Numbers (estimates of total no. CA per type/form, no. of female & male members)

inventory started during SD + extra follow up work in selected sites by field assistants (not in workplan)

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Gendered mapping of the sub sectors

Gendered Mapping of the Sub-sectors

Gendered mapping:

Visualization of the selected sub-sectors & existing value chains

Identification of all chain operations, support services (incl. pilots to promote women’s access to markets)

Assessment of policy & institutional environment

Highlighting the position of women in the sub-sector

Highlighting the collective action in the sub-sector; presence of women

The gendered sub-sector map allows for

understanding of actual position of women in sub-sector

Identifying potentials and barriers for women producers, processors & traders to access markets and improve revenues

Assessing options for using collective action to enhance gender equitable benefits in the sub-sector and empowerment

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Gendered mapping of the sub sectors ctd

Gendered Mapping of the Sub-sectors (ctd)

Steps

Collect of information during Stakeholder Dialogues & identification of resource persons & additional sources of information

Continued collect of information (during 2010) and complete map & analysis (2011)

Collect information during field visits for the survey (see next step; features of the regions & villages, gendered mapping of the selected sub-sectors)

Collect information during field visits the Focus Groups Discussions

Etc.

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Some findings ethiopia

Some findings Ethiopia


Bertus wennink thea hilhorst international advisory group meeting 28 29th june 2010 oxford

Mali


Tanzania

Tanzania


Initial proposal sequencing of survey fgds case studies

Initial Proposal: Sequencing of Survey, FGDs & Case Studies

Gendered mapping

Survey

Hypotheses

Hypotheses

-Focus Group Discussions

-case Studies

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Initial proposal survey

Initial proposal Survey

Object of survey

Formal & informal types of collective action in selected SS

Women inside & outside collective action

(understanding differences between female and male members on costs/ benefits: FGD /case study- not in survey

themes

‘Characteristics’ of women inside & outside collective action

Costs;benefits; risks from collective action for women

Empowerment as a result of CA

Methods for data collection

questionnaires with individual women (members & non-members of collective action but active in sub-sector living in same community)

questionnaires with leaders/resource persons of collective action “types”

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Initial proposal survey planning

Initial proposal Survey planning

Develop detailed questionnaires (mid Aug 2010)

  • Country level translation

  • Pre-testing

  • Finalize questionnaire

    Prepare site & case selection

  • Full list of Collective action; members; non-members in selected sites (Aug 2010)

  • Sampling

  • Train research teams

  • Data collection (Sep - Oct 2010 given rainy season & availability of farmers)

  • Data entry & processing (start Nov 2010)

  • Analysis (Dec 2010)

  • FGD simultaneously (planning) or following survey analysis in 2011?


  • Cases and sampling

    Cases and sampling

    Sampling strategy

    2 Districts/ woreda/ commune with 2 or 3 of the selected sub-sectors)

    100 cases of CA/ country: => 16 cases per Subsector or weighted (based on total CA or membership in population in selected sites)?

    Female Members/ non-members in subsector in same community (characteristics; cost-benefit; empowerment)

    Establish list of members of CA and lists of women outside CA but active in sub-sector working in the same locality

    Selection (at random) of 5 women inside & 5 women outside CA

    Collective action questionnaire: via leaders/resource persons of CA.

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    However is the initial plan still the right approach

    However – is the initial plan still the right approach?

    • Some sub-sectors selected seem to have very limited collective action directly related to market access (seems limited to labour sharing --Tanzania- Ethiopia-coffee/ vegetables)

    • Tanzania; all reported CA seem externally induced- is this correct?

    • In some SS very limited numbers of CA until now

    • Higher than expected variation types of CA: is it possible to analyse cost; benefit, risks or empowerment (strategic interests) using a survey as main methodology?

    • Sampling & logistics: Sub-sectors seem spread out over large area/ limited overlap.

    • It may be better to postpone survey: continue with more qualitative work for each SS starting at community level (gender biases to enter and to stay; full inventory and typology CA, economics); –only then followed by a survey (reconsider sampling and counter factual)

    • What is the most optimal use of limited resources and time to achieve quality?


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