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Development. Why does development vary among countries? Where are more and less developed countries located? Why does developed countries face obstacles to develop?. Key Issue 1: Why does development vary among countries?. The three objectives of development

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Development

Development

Why does development vary among countries?

Where are more and less developed countries located?

Why does developed countries face obstacles to develop?


Key issue 1 why does development vary among countries
Key Issue 1: Why does development vary among countries?

  • The three objectives of development

    • increases in availability and improvements in the distribution of food, shelter, health, protection, etc.

    • improvements in ‘levels of living,’ including higher incomes, more jobs, better education, etc.

    • expansions in the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations


  • Development- the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.

  • More developed country- (MDC) a country that has progressed relatively far on the development continuum. Also relatively developed country; developed country.

  • Less developed country- (LDC) a country in an earlier stage of development. Also developing country.


Measuring development
Measuring Development conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.

  • United Nations Development Program Overview 2005

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

    • Types of Work (Economic Sectors)

  • Social Indicators

    • Education and Literacy

    • Health and Welfare

  • Demographic Indicators

    • Life Expectancy (37 - 80 years)

    • Infant Mortality (<10 - >100 per thousand)

    • Natural Increase (0 - 4.7 %)


  • Gross Domestic Product- (GDP) the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country per year.

  • Literacy rate- the percentage of a country’s people who can read and write.

    • Human Development Index- (HDI) the official “scorebook” that the U.N. uses to classify countries’ development as distinguished by its economic, social, and demographic factors.

      • The economic factor is a country’s GDP per capita; the social factors are literacy rate and the amount of education; the demographic factor is life expectancy.


Human development index 2005
Human Development Index, of goods and services produced in a country per year.2005

Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).


Human development index hdi and recent colonial control
Human Development Index (HDI) and Recent Colonial Control of goods and services produced in a country per year.

The “HDI” ranks the relative “development” of the world’s countries based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth; educational attainment, measured by a combination of adult literacy rate (two thirds weight) and combined gross primary, secondary and tertiary enrollment in schools (one third weight); and standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita – PPP (purchasing power parity) US$.

Norway’s HDI rank is 1; Canada- 4; United States- 8; Japan- 9; Chile- 43; China- 94; Sierra Leone- 177.


Measuring development1
Measuring Development of goods and services produced in a country per year.

  • Social Indicators

    • Education and Literacy


  • Any guesses on who Scored the highest? of goods and services produced in a country per year.

    • Norway at .944. Others have been Canada, Japan, U.S.A., and various W. Europe countries.

  • How about the Lowest?

    • The lowest ranking HDI was recorded in Sierra Leone with a .275. The other global lows are clustered in sub-Saharan Africa.


  • The different types of jobs are classified into three major sectors, all of which will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters.

    • Primary sector jobs are those that are involved in directly extracting materials from the Earth, i.e. ag, mining, fishing.

    • Secondary sector jobs are manufacturing jobs.

    • Tertiary sector jobs involve the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment.

      • This sector is subdivided into quaternary (businesses like trade, insurance, banking) and quinary (health, research, govt.)

  • Who do you think gets paid the most?


Economic sectors
Economic Sectors sectors, all of which will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters.

  • Primary - such as hunting and gathering, along with farming

  • Secondary - manufacturing industries

  • Tertiary - service industries like offices, banks, and hospitals

  • Quartenary - specialized service industries/management

  • Quinary – creative, innovative societal developments


Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Manufacturing value added per manufacturing worker
Manufacturing Value Added Per Manufacturing Worker tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Land based telephone lines per capita
Land-Based Telephone Lines Per Capita tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Cellular telephones per capita
Cellular Telephones Per Capita tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Percent enrolled in school
Percent Enrolled in School tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Percent of adults who are literate
Percent of Adults Who Are Literate tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Percent of population that is undernourished
Percent of Population That is Undernourished tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Calorie supply per capita
Calorie Supply Per Capita tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


Physicians per 100,000 Population tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.

Private Expenditures on Health Care as Percent of GDP


New international division of labor
New International Division of Labor tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.


  • Productivity- the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.

  • Value added- the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.

    • Both productivity and value added are higher in MDC’s where manufacturing is far more efficient.

  • Generally, those countries that have had abundant resources stood a better chance to develop than those that have had few resources.

    • However, some countries, like Japan or Switzerland have achieved superb development w/out many resources, primarily through world trade.


  • Measuring wealth in countries the amount of labor needed to make it.

    • A measure of the wealth of a country is the number of consumer goods, like telephones, computers, cars, and television.

      • In LDC’s, very few of these products are likely to be found, and those that do exist are normally shared among many neighbors who all share the cost.

      • Contrasted with MDC’s where the number of TVs to people is practically 1:1. In MDC’s those with wealth typically reside in the suburbs and the lower classes reside in the inner cities;

      • LDC’s show the exact opposite with the wealth clustered in the city and poor people living in the countryside.


  • Literacy and Health the amount of labor needed to make it.

    • The literacy rate exceeds 95% in MDC’s compared to less than 30% in some LDC’s.

    • The student-teacher ratio is 15 or below in many MDC’s and above 40 in some LDC’s.

  • People are healthier in MDC’s because there are more physicians, hospitals, and nurses per person than in LDC’s.

    • The people in MDC’s have a healthier, more complete diet, and receive more calories and proteins than the people in LDC’s who barely receive the daily minimum


  • Life expectancy is higher in MDC’s than in LDC’s. the amount of labor needed to make it.

    • Infant mortality rate, Natural Increase Rate, and CBR are all higher in LDC’s.

    • CDR (crude death rate) is not indicative of development because it remains relatively constant betwixt MDC’s and LDC’s.

    • The reasons for this are that medical technology has diffused to the LDC’s and thus lowered their CDR,

      • there is a higher number of old people in MDC’s, therefore the CDR will equal that of LDC’s.


Demographics and development
Demographics and Development the amount of labor needed to make it.

  • The key demographic indicators of development are

    • life expectancy,

    • infant mortality rate,

    • natural increase rate, and

    • crude birth rate.


Measuring development2
Measuring Development the amount of labor needed to make it.

  • Social Indicators

    • Health and Welfare


Annual gdp per capita
Annual GDP Per Capita the amount of labor needed to make it.

Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developed countries but under $5000 in most less developed countries.


Key issue 2 where are more and less developed countries distributed
Key Issue 2: Where are more and less developed countries distributed?

  • The world is categorized into nine major regions according to their level of development. The nine regions are:

    • Anglo-America – Canada and the U.S.

    • Latin America

    • Western Europe

    • Eastern Europe

    • East Asia

      • Japan is separate and is its own region.

    • South Asia

    • Southeast Asia

      • Australia and New Zealand are treated separately and known as the S. Pacific.

    • Middle East

    • Sub-Saharan Africa


Location of more and less developed countries
Location of More and Less Developed Countries distributed?

Development generally reflects a North-South split in the world.


More and less developed regions
More and Less Developed Regions distributed?

  • More developed regions

    • Anglo-America – Western Europe

    • Eastern Europe – Japan

    • South Pacific

  • Less developed regions

    • Latin America – East Asia

    • Southeast Asia – Middle East

    • South Asia – Sub-Saharan Africa


  • Developed Regions distributed?

    • ANGLO-AMERICA has an HDI of .94

    • WESTERN EUROPE has an HDI of .92

    • EASTERN EUROPE has an HDI of .78.

      • It is the only region on Earth where the HDI has actually declined. This is due to production cutbacks, higher death rates, and various other hardships as a result of overcoming communism and having to rebuild their economies.

      • The HDI is actually identical to that of Latin America. However, because of E. Europe’s history of economic development, it is listed as a more developed region.

    • JAPAN has an HDI of .93

    • SOUTH PACIFIC has an HDI of .93

  • Polar Projection Map


  • Developing Regions distributed?

    • LATIN AMERICA has an HDI of .78. Development is high along coast, where MDC’s have established manufacturing centers or tourist destinations, but the standard of living is lacking elsewhere in the region.

      • Try leaving the resort-

    • EAST ASIA has an HDI of .72. China is expected to overtake U.S. as the world’s largest economy w/in a few years.

    • SOUTHEST ASIA has an HDI of .71

    • MIDDLE EAST has an HDI of .66. Many of the wealthiest people in the world are clustered here because of oil.

      • only a select few have access to this money, and it is poorly distributed to the general public.

    • SOUTH ASIA has an HDI of .58

    • SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA has an HDI of .47


Where does level of development vary by gender
Where does level of development vary by gender? distributed?

  • Gender-related development index- (GDI) compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.

  • Gender empowerment measure- (GEM) compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.

  • The GDI uses the same indicators of development used in the HDI adjusted to reflect differences in the accomplishments and conditions of men and women.

    • The GDI reflects improvements in the standard of living and well being of women, whereas the GEM measures the ability of women to participate in the process of achieving those improvements.


Gender related development index 4 factors similar to the hdi

Gender-Related Development Index distributed?4factors similar to the HDI

Economic:

average income

2. Social Indicators:

-literacy levels

-education

(school attendance)

3. Demographic:

Life expectancy



  • - distributed?The rank of the Netherlands remained the same. (0)

  • -The rank of Belgium is #7 but the HDI rank is #6. (-1)

  • -The rank of Iceland is #6 but the HDI rank is #7. (1)

  • -The rank of Japan is #12 but the HDI rank is 9. (-3)

  • Why would a country drop in rank from the HDI?


Nepal gdi
Nepal: GDI distributed?

  • 59.4 59.9 26.4 61.6 55 67 891 1,776 -4

    What do can you tell about

    Women in Nepal?

    -Women and men have the

    same life expectancy. Why?

    -Only a small % of women can

    read compared to their

    enrollment in school. Why?

    -Women make less money

    than men. Why?

    -What does the last figure mean?


China gdi
China: GDI distributed?

94 73.2 68.8 86.5 95.1 64 69 3,571 5,435 5

What can you tell about

the women in China?

-Life expectancy is more

consistent with the global trend

-Almost equal numbers of each

sex attend school, although low

-Literacy rate is high but lower

for females compared to males

-Males have a higher income

compared to women, consistent

with the global pattern


  • The GEM is calculated by combining: distributed?

    • Two indicators of economic power

      -income

      -professional jobs

    • Two indicators of political power

      -managerial jobs

      -elected positions

  • The GDI and GEM are both substantially higher in MDC’s than in LDC’s.



Nepal gem
Nepal: GEM distributed?

  • No data.50

    1951 1951 1952A 14.8 6 5.9

    Due to lack of data on the GEM,

    Data was found on the Political

    Participation Index


China gem
China: GEM distributed?

20.2 .66

  • 1949 1954E 5.1 21 20.2

    Data for China can be combined from the GEM and the Political Participation index to discuss the political power of women compared to men in China.


Gdi and gem of an mdc sweden
GDI and GEM of an MDC: distributed?Sweden

2 0.946 82.5 77.5 100 100 124 104 23,781 28,700 -

2 0.854 45.3 31 50 0.83

When comparing Nepal and China to Sweden, what differences can you detect?


  • -Just like the HDI, the GDI and GEM divide countries into high, medium, and low areas of development.

  • -Cultural norms can control the advancement or subjugation of women and their status in certain regions of the world.

  • -Gender inequality in income, education, and political power is a global problem.



Gender related development index gdi
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) MDC’s?

GDI combines income, literacy, education and life expectancy adjusted to reflect differences in the accomplishments of men and women.


Female College Attendance as Percentage of Male College Attendance

Female Literacy Rate as Percentage of Male Literacy Rate


Female Income as Percentage of Male Income Attendance

Percent Seats in National Legislature Held by Women


  • http://www.ted.com/talks/sheryl_wudunn_our_century_s_greatest_injustice.html



  • Development gap
    Development Gap to development?

    • Informal Sector- Not included in the GDP but is prevalent- Under the table wages- Illegals and such

    • Big Mac Index- Comparison of the Big Mac- ex. 3.22 in the USA and 1.78 in Thailand

      • 8,440 is the Mean and 42,000 in the USA- but twice the price

    • Development Gap- MDC are increasing their gap from LDC-

      • GDP has tripled in MDC and Doubled in LDC

      • North-South Gap- Northern Hemisphere is MDC


    Institutions of international development
    Institutions of International Development to development?

    • United Nations - formed in 1945 to promote peace. 189 current members.

    • World Bank - financial assistance and loans. Owned by 189 United Nations members.

    • International Monetary Fund - arm of U.N. that surveys and oversees international money exchange to prevent monetary crises. Also provides loans and training to help countries with balance of payment problems.

    • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) - World Watch, Human Rights Watch, World Commission on Dams, Grameen Bank, Kiva.org, many others.


    Strategies and models for international development
    Strategies and Models for International Development to development?

    • International Aid

      • Important, but can foster dependency

      • Loans, in particular, lead to loss of sovereignty

    • Self-Sufficiency Model or Import Substitution (tariffs protect markets)

      • Attempted in Mexico (economy stagnated)

      • Attempted in India (industrial quality suffered)

    • International Trade Model (Economic Growth)

      • Rostow’s Model

      • World Bank lending

    • Basic Needs Model/Appropriate Technology Model

      • Microlending (Grameen Bank, Kiva.org)

      • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

    • Revolutionary/Radical Reform Model

      • Cuba, U.S.S.R


    • There are two main models of development that an LDC can take.

      • DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SELF-SUFFICIENCY:

        • a country should spread investment as equally as possible across all sectors of its economy and in all regions.

        • The growth may take time, but will occur over a broader spectrum.

        • The idea is accomplished by protecting internal businesses by setting barriers that limit the import of goods from other places using tariffs, quotas, etc; and limiting the amount of goods that can be exported to other countries.

          • India, which for years made effective use of barriers to promote internal growth.

          • Problems with the self-sufficiency approach are that it is inefficient because internal businesses are assured of the market and do not have to compete by developing new products or lowering their prices.

          • The self-sufficiency model also demands a large bureaucracy to administer the controls, and this opens the govt. up to corruption.

    • International trade

    • Which do Americans Want?


    Self sufficiency
    Self-Sufficiency take.

    • Country should spread investments throughout economic sectors and encourage producing goods for people in country

    • Imports should be limited through taxes, or limiting number of imports allowed, or by licensing

    • E.G. is India, but population is growing so rapidly, this is difficult.

    • Problems with this approach:

      • Inefficient domestic market – too small to make a profit

      • Companies feel they are protected from competition, so don’t keep pace with technology

      • Large, often corrupt bureaucracies lead to illegal activities

    • Proposed solution: World Bank, etc. lend money to LDCs to develop hydroelectric power, flood protection, etc.


    • DEVELOPMENT THROUGH INTERNATIONAL TRADE: This model was developed by W.W. Rostow in the 1950s. The model is divided into five stages:

      • The traditional society. This stage is before a country has started to develop. A large number of the population is engaged in subsistence ag.

      • The preconditions for takeoff. At this stage, a group of elite businessmen begin to organize the economy and create infrastructure for future manufacturing and services.

      • The takeoff. Rapid growth is experienced in few select businesses. These advances “fuel the fire” by providing capital for the other businesses to utilize.

      • The drive to maturity. Modern technology, previously confined to the takeoff industries, diffuses to every facet of the economy which then realizes rapid growth.

      • The age of mass consumption.The economy shifts from second sector to tertiary and consumer goods begin to grow in numbers.


    • MDC’s are in stages 4 or 5, developed by W.W. Rostow in the 1950s. The model is divided into five stages:

    • LDC’s are in one of the first three.

      • Rostow’s model is often considered overly optimistic by assuming that every country will develop.

      • The core-periphery model states that the LDC’s (periphery) will remain so until they “beat the system” and become part of the core (MDC’s).

        • Examples of Rostow’s model can be seen in the oil-rich Middle East states or the Four Asian Dragons (S. Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong) all of whom developed some internal advantage, i.e. oil or cheap labor, and sold it to the MDC’s


    • Problems with Rostow’s model are: developed by W.W. Rostow in the 1950s. The model is divided into five stages:

      • Resources are not distributed unevenly, causing some countries to be left with little internally to sell to MDC’s

      • The stagnation of the world market

      • As alluded to in the core-periphery model, the LDC’s will continue to become more indebted to the MDC’s.

    • Rostow’s model is seen as a more applicable approach to development than is the self-sufficiency model in the modern era.

      • Countries like India that have recently switched to the international trade approach have seen far greater results. To further promote this model the World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded.


    Other problems in international development
    Other Problems in International Development developed by W.W. Rostow in the 1950s. The model is divided into five stages:

    • High Debt Countries

    • Hostility Regarding World Bank and IMF Structural Adjustment Programs

      • IMF “Free Market” Requirements for Loans and Assistance

    • Warfare and Instability Limit Foreign Investment

    • Lack of Infrastructure (or Colonial Infrastructure) Limits Opportunity and Investment


    • Regardless of the approach taken, nearly all LDC’s face the challenge of financing their development.

    • LDC’s can borrow money from MDC’s to build infrastructure in order to instigate growth,

      • many are unable to even pay the interest on the loans, much less actually pay them off.

      • Recently, MDC’s have grown increasingly unwilling to lend money to LDC’s because of their history of defaulting.

      • Many MDC’s force the LDC’s that wish to borrow money to adopt

        • structural adjustment programs- economic policies that create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing govt. spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.

    • Should we even ask for it back? Loan forgiveness


    High debt poor countries
    High Debt Poor Countries the challenge of financing their development.

    For the World

    • In 1970, the world’s poorest countries (roughly 60 countries classified as low-income by the World Bank), owed $25 billion in debt.

    • By 2002, this was at least $523 billion

      For Africa,

      • In 1970, it was just under $11 billion

      • By 2002, that was over half, to $295 billion

        Interest payments consume some small economies, encouraging export earnings instead of internal improvements. Third World Debt kills.


    Debt forgiveness
    Debt Forgiveness? the challenge of financing their development.

    In 2005, The IMF, after pressure from NGOs, announced debt forgiveness relief programs for 18 of the poorest countries. However, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program continues to demand austerity programs that damage social welfare systems.

    After the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the G7 countries pledged to forgive debt in the 12 affected countries. Sri Lanka and Indonesia, however, still owe billions today.


    Income demographic change 1980 2005
    Income & Demographic Change, 1980- 2005 the challenge of financing their development.

    Rates of natural increase and infant mortality have remained much higher in LDCs than in MDCs. Since 1980, the natural increase rate has declined at about the same rates in MDCs and LDCs, while the infant mortality rate has declined more rapidly in LDCs. Per capita GDP has increased more in MDCs than in LDCs during this period.


    Debt as percent of income
    Debt as Percent of Income the challenge of financing their development.

    Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs. Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.


    Foreign direct investment flows
    Foreign Direct Investment Flows the challenge of financing their development.

    Most transnational companies invest in the three core regions of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Outside these core regions, the largest investment is in China.


    Development and debt finance
    Development and Debt Finance the challenge of financing their development. 

    The 42-year graph below indicates that with few exceptions, the northern, western, wealthy, industrialized, developed nations have benefited the most from liberalized trade and economic globalization.


    Foreign direct investment
    Foreign Direct Investment the challenge of financing their development.


    Core and periphery in world economy
    Core and Periphery in World Economy the challenge of financing their development.


    Infrastructure
    Infrastructure the challenge of financing their development.


    Warfare and instability limit foreign investment
    Warfare and Instability Limit Foreign Investment the challenge of financing their development.


    • In recent years, U.S., Japanese, and European multinational corporations (MNC) have been created

      • These companies take advantage of the cheap labor and relaxed regulations found in many of the LDC’s to produce products cheaply and sell them back home for much higher

      • The main problem with MNCs is that LDC governments concentrate only on creating the infrastructure to attract these large companies, therefore using crucial funds to draw big business instead of investing in the standard of living of its citizens.

        • In addition, the govt. may overlook labor violations in order to keep the MNC from leaving.

    • Is this a problem or a benefit for our economy?


    The core periphery model divides the world in 3 main sectors
    The Core-Periphery Model corporations (MNC) have been createdDivides the World in 3 Main Sectors

    The core - the area with greatest prosperity and power.

    The semi-periphery - the area with some control, but less than that of the core, and somewhat prosperous.

    The periphery - the area with the least power and the least amount of prosperity.


    Progress towards development
    Progress Towards Development corporations (MNC) have been created

    NIR = Natural Increase Rate

    IMR = Infant Mortality Rate


    Air pollution in eastern europe
    Air Pollution in Eastern Europe corporations (MNC) have been created

    Sulfate emissions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. GIS was used to map previously secret data on air pollution after the fall of the communist regime. Extremely high levels were found in some of the main industrial areas.


    Industrial air pollution corporations (MNC) have been created from the developed world is carried on the dominant wind currents up to the arctic.

    After settling onto the tundra, snow and ice it is absorbed into the food chain.

    The people and creatures there have some of the highest concentrations of toxins in their bodies of anywhere on earth.


    • Poverty corporations (MNC) have been created

  • http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_reveals_new_insights_on_poverty.html


  • Other models and the usa
    Other Models and the USA corporations (MNC) have been created


    Human development index within the united states
    Human Development Index Within the United States corporations (MNC) have been created

    Methodology: To determine a state's livability rating, each state's rankings in 44 categories were averaged.

    Some of the positive factors included household income, homeownership, job growth, and educational attainment.

    The negative factors included crime rate, poverty rate, infant mortality rate, and unemployment rate.

    Most Livable

    Least Livable


    Negative factors in state livability hdi rating
    Negative Factors in State “Livability” (HDI) Rating corporations (MNC) have been created


    Positive factors in state livability hdi rating
    Positive Factors in State “Livability” (HDI) Rating corporations (MNC) have been created



    Diversity index
    Diversity Index corporations (MNC) have been created


    Hi tech index
    Hi Tech Index corporations (MNC) have been created


    Innovation index
    Innovation Index corporations (MNC) have been created


    Key terms
    Key Terms corporations (MNC) have been created

    Literacy rate

    Primary sector

    Productivity

    Secondary sector

    Structural adjustment program

    Tertiary sector

    Value added

    Development

    Fair trade

    Foreign direct investment

    Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

    Gender-related Development Index (GIM)

    Gross domestic product

    Human Development Index


    Sources
    Sources corporations (MNC) have been created

    • Rubenstein, James- Cultural Landscape; An Introduction to Human Geography

    • http://www.glendale.edu/geo/reed/cultural/cultural_lectures.htm

    • http://www.quia.com/pages/mrsbellaphg.html

    • Ike Heard-http://geoearth.uncc.edu/people/iheard/1105syllabus.html

    • Valerie Oblinsky, Virginia GeographicAlliance

    • Rubenstein, James M. (2008). An introduction to human geography The cultural landscape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

    • de Blij, H.J., Murphy, ALexander B. & Fouberg, Erin H., Human geography, People, place, and culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

    • Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G. & Domosh, Mona, (2003). The human mosaic, A thematic introduction to cultural geography. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.

    • Knox, Paul L. & Marston, Sallie A., (2007). Human geography, Places and regions in global context. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall

    • Retrieved October 11, 2007, Web site: http://womenwarpeace.org/Portals/0/Documents/hdr04_gender_indicators.pdf

    • Retrieved October 11, 2007, Web site: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2003/indicator/indic_207_1_1.html

    • Valerie OblinskyVirginia GeographicAlliancePictures by Tom Landon AndDr. Robert Slaughter


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