Development. Why does development vary among countries? Where are more and less developed countries located? Why does developed countries face obstacles to develop?. Key Issue 1: Why does development vary among countries?. The three objectives of development
Why does development vary among countries?
Where are more and less developed countries located?
Why does developed countries face obstacles to develop?
Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).
The “HDI” ranks the relative “development” of the world’s countries based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth; educational attainment, measured by a combination of adult literacy rate (two thirds weight) and combined gross primary, secondary and tertiary enrollment in schools (one third weight); and standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita – PPP (purchasing power parity) US$.
Norway’s HDI rank is 1; Canada- 4; United States- 8; Japan- 9; Chile- 43; China- 94; Sierra Leone- 177.
Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.
Physicians per 100,000 Population tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.
Private Expenditures on Health Care as Percent of GDP
Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developed countries but under $5000 in most less developed countries.
Development generally reflects a North-South split in the world.
2. Social Indicators:
What do can you tell about
Women in Nepal?
-Women and men have the
same life expectancy. Why?
-Only a small % of women can
read compared to their
enrollment in school. Why?
-Women make less money
than men. Why?
-What does the last figure mean?
94 73.2 68.8 86.5 95.1 64 69 3,571 5,435 5
What can you tell about
the women in China?
-Life expectancy is more
consistent with the global trend
-Almost equal numbers of each
sex attend school, although low
-Literacy rate is high but lower
for females compared to males
-Males have a higher income
compared to women, consistent
with the global pattern
1951 1951 1952A 14.8 6 5.9
Due to lack of data on the GEM,
Data was found on the Political
Data for China can be combined from the GEM and the Political Participation index to discuss the political power of women compared to men in China.
2 0.946 82.5 77.5 100 100 124 104 23,781 28,700 -
2 0.854 45.3 31 50 0.83
When comparing Nepal and China to Sweden, what differences can you detect?
GDI combines income, literacy, education and life expectancy adjusted to reflect differences in the accomplishments of men and women.
Female Literacy Rate as Percentage of Male Literacy Rate
Female Income as Percentage of Male Income Attendance
Percent Seats in National Legislature Held by Women
For the World
Interest payments consume some small economies, encouraging export earnings instead of internal improvements. Third World Debt kills.
In 2005, The IMF, after pressure from NGOs, announced debt forgiveness relief programs for 18 of the poorest countries. However, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program continues to demand austerity programs that damage social welfare systems.
After the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the G7 countries pledged to forgive debt in the 12 affected countries. Sri Lanka and Indonesia, however, still owe billions today.
Rates of natural increase and infant mortality have remained much higher in LDCs than in MDCs. Since 1980, the natural increase rate has declined at about the same rates in MDCs and LDCs, while the infant mortality rate has declined more rapidly in LDCs. Per capita GDP has increased more in MDCs than in LDCs during this period.
Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs. Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.
Most transnational companies invest in the three core regions of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Outside these core regions, the largest investment is in China.
The 42-year graph below indicates that with few exceptions, the northern, western, wealthy, industrialized, developed nations have benefited the most from liberalized trade and economic globalization.
The core - the area with greatest prosperity and power.
The semi-periphery - the area with some control, but less than that of the core, and somewhat prosperous.
The periphery - the area with the least power and the least amount of prosperity.
NIR = Natural Increase Rate
IMR = Infant Mortality Rate
Sulfate emissions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. GIS was used to map previously secret data on air pollution after the fall of the communist regime. Extremely high levels were found in some of the main industrial areas.
Industrial air pollution corporations (MNC) have been created from the developed world is carried on the dominant wind currents up to the arctic.
After settling onto the tundra, snow and ice it is absorbed into the food chain.
The people and creatures there have some of the highest concentrations of toxins in their bodies of anywhere on earth.
Methodology: To determine a state's livability rating, each state's rankings in 44 categories were averaged.
Some of the positive factors included household income, homeownership, job growth, and educational attainment.
The negative factors included crime rate, poverty rate, infant mortality rate, and unemployment rate.
Structural adjustment program
Foreign direct investment
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Gender-related Development Index (GIM)
Gross domestic product
Human Development Index