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Instructional Planning. Dr. Eli Collins-Brown Week 2 AET520 Instructional Strategies in Adult Education and Training University of Phoenix. Components of Development. Attention Getter Instructional Content Other instructional modules/training plans. Attention Getter.

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Instructional Planning

Dr. Eli Collins-Brown

Week 2

AET520 Instructional Strategies in Adult Education and Training

University of Phoenix

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Components of Development

  • Attention Getter

  • Instructional Content

  • Other instructional modules/training plans

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Attention Getter

  • Capture the audience’s attention

    • Examples:

      • Ice breaker activity

      • Quote

      • Activity

      • Questions

      • Humor

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Instructional Content

  • Focus on what learners need to know

  • Chunk content information into portions or cohesive segments

  • Select audience-appropriate topics/subjects

  • Consider the timing length of the material

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Other modules/training plans

  • Gagne – nine events of instruction

  • Madeline Hunter

  • Constructivist Approach

  • Keller’s ARCS model

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Gagne’s 9 events

  • Gain learners’ attention

  • Tell learners the objectives

  • Recall prior learning

  • Present stimulus material (instructional information)

  • Guide learners through info

  • Have learners practice

  • Provide learners with informative feedback

  • Assess learners

  • Provide tools for retention

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Madeline Hunter

  • Objectives/standards

  • Anticipatory set

  • Teaching/presentation

  • Guided practice

  • Closure

  • Independent practice

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Constructivist Approach

  • Invitation – setting the stage

  • Exploration – describes the activities

  • Explanation – learners share

  • Taking action – learners take personal or social responsibility for their learning

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Keller’s ARCS model

  • Attention – gain attention

  • Relevance – emphasize why learners need to know

  • Confidence – learners need to feel like they can accomplish the task, practice and application accomplish this

  • Satisfaction – they need to feel good about what they have learned

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Various models

  • No one model is right or wrong.

  • Depends on

    • Instructional designer’s philosophy

    • Learners (audience)

    • Type of learning outcomes

    • Instructional environment (context)

    • Work environment

    • Design constraints

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Components in Implementation

  • Instructional strategies/methodology – how the content will be taught

  • Formative assessment – ongoing assessment throughout instruction to check understanding

  • Closure

  • Materials and resources

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Formative Assessment

  • Formative assessments are ongoing measures designed to provide information to both the instructor and learners concerning learners' understanding of segments of course material

  • Formative assessments are conducted throughout the instructional process to monitor learners' progress and provide feedback on strengths and weaknesses

  • The key to formative assessment is the role of feedback. This feedback allows learners to correct conceptual errors and encourages instructors to modify instructional activities in light of their effectiveness.

  • Since formative assessments are designed to guide learning and are not utilized as an outcome measure, they are generally considered a low stakes assessment. With the emphasis on learner-centered instructional strategies, instructors are encouraged to integrate formative assessments into the course mix.

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Formative assessments provide

  • Insight on learners' strengths and misconceptions in relation to specific course concepts

  • Guidance to improve learner understanding

  • A means of monitoring progress in learning

  • Diagnostic information concerning learners' errors in understanding

  • A non-threatening activity to identify and to correct problems in learning and instruction

  • Feedback to the instructor concerning the effectiveness of instructional activities

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Enhancing formative assessments

  • Formative assessments must directly relate to learning objectives and to instructional activities. When designing a formative assessment, target a single objective so that assessment results can be effectively utilized to guide activities toward achievement of that objective and of overall goals.

  • While formative assessments may be short and informal, be sure that all activities are purposeful and goal-directed. Do not use formative assessments unless there is a clear purpose related to specific course activities or concepts.

  • To be effective, formative assessments must provide feedback. Since the goal of formative assessment is to identify and to correct conceptual errors, instructors must ensure that learners have relevant information to guide their understanding. Feedback may be either peer- or instructor-directed as long as it is specific to the learning activity and to assessment results.

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Enhancing formative assessments – cont.

  • Since formative assessments are a low-stakes measure, it may be difficult to motivate learners' performance. To encourage active participation, formative assessments must be relevant and engaging.

  • Both the formative assessment and accompanying feedback must be timely to course activities, theories, and concepts.

  • To be most effective, formative assessments must be ongoing. By continually assessing and providing opportunities for correction, instructors can guide learners toward desired learning outcomes.

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  • Three Types:

    • Review closure – summarizes the lesson

    • Transfer closure – consolidates learning and bridges to new learning

    • Serendipity closure – unplanned opportunity for learning

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Materials and resources

  • Media Selection

  • Printed Media

  • Overhead Transparencies

  • Audio

  • Video

  • Computer-based training

  • Internet/WWW

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Media Selection

  • Where and how instruction will be delivered

  • The amount of time available for delivering the instruction

  • The type of information that will need to be presented (e.g., verbal, visual, written, auditory)

  • The amount of time and money available for designing and producing the program

  • The equipment available to deliver the instructional program (or money available to buy new equipment)

  • The target audience’s skill with media

  • Your client’s preferences – the client may have preferences for a particular type of media

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Printed Media

  • Portable

  • Inexpensive and quick to prepare

  • Learners are familiar with this media

  • Easy to distribute

  • Requires learners to be able to read

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Overhead transparencies

  • Effective with large audiences

  • Easy to prepare and to update

  • Portable

  • Equipment is easy to operate

  • Somewhat outdated technology

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  • Provides sound

  • Easy to prepare and use

  • Equipment is portable and easy to operate

  • Inexpensive

  • Sometimes not easy for all to hear

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  • Presents full-motion audio and visual

  • Can incorporate still images, animation, and time-lapse

  • Good for individuals or groups

  • Can pause for discussion

  • Cost of studio production equipment is high

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Computer-based Training

  • Combine attributes of all media

  • Can track learner progress

  • Instruction can be individualized

  • Provides interactivity

  • Provides distance learning

  • Can provide just-in-time and any time learning

  • Requires that the user have a computer available

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  • Incorporates audio, video, and graphics

  • Can provide interactivity

  • Can provide easy access to other resources

  • Provides distance learning

  • Can provide just-in-time and any time learning

  • Capable of wide geographic distribution

  • Internet access can be slow and unreliable

  • Programming can be tedious and complex

  • Need 24-hour technical support

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Planning and instructional variables

  • Importance

  • Sequence

  • Components

  • Variables

  • Retention

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Importance of Instructional Planning

  • Guide for creating your instructional materials

  • Sequence in which you will present learners with types of learning experiences

  • Not a content outline

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Sequence of instructional events

  • Logical order (e.g., easy to difficult, concrete to abstract)

  • Procedural order (e.g., first, second, etc.)

  • Content organization (e.g., general to detailed)

  • Narrative sequence (e.g., beginning, middle, and end)

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  • Pre-instructional activities – motivating learners, informing them of the objectives, and ensuring learners meet prerequisites

  • Information presentation – instruction, examples, information

  • Learner participation – practice and feedback

  • Testing – pretest, posttest

  • Follow through – telling learners what to do next as a result of their performance on a test, such as next courses to take or if they must retake the course if they do not pass the test

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Variables that influence planning

  • Content – concepts, generalizations/interpersonal and social skills

  • Objectives – what the learner will be able to do as a result of the lesson

  • Objectives describe “the knowledge, skills, or attitudes students should display as a result of participating in a lesson” (Lang & Evans, 2006, p. 209)

  • Activities are the “learning experiences in which students participate to achieve objectives” (Lang & Evans, 2006, p. 209)

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Instructional Retention

  • Use multiple senses to vary the presentation

  • Retention of information according to Murgio (1969)

    • Learners retain 10% of what is read

    • Learners retain 20% of what is heard

    • Learners retain 30% of what is seen

    • Learners retain 50% of what is heard and seen

    • Learners retain 70% of what is said

    • Learners retain 90% of what is said as it is done

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Instructional Retention – cont.

  • Techniques to vary the presentation

    • Focusing – gain and hold attention verbally and nonverbally

    • Moving physically in the classroom

    • Shifting interaction of instructor to learner and learner-to-learner

    • Learner-centered learning as opposed to teacher-centered

    • Pausing (silence) – used for emphasis and allows learners time to respond

    • Shifting senses – explain, demonstrate, then learners perform

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