Hci concepts and practices
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HCI concepts and practices. I. Reimagining HCI • Human-centered design • New approaches to HCI II. New concerns • HCI and affect III. HCI careers • Where do you do it? • What do you do?. I . Reimagining HCI.

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Hci concepts and practices

HCI concepts and practices

I. Reimagining HCI

• Human-centered design

• New approaches to HCI

II. New concerns

• HCI and affect

III. HCI careers

• Where do you do it?

• What do you do?


I reimagining hci

I. Reimagining HCI

Reimagining HCI: Toward a more human-centered perspective

Bannonbriefly reviews the history of HCI, touching on its roots in human factors engineering and suggests a new type of approach

He argues that a human-centered design approach is more appropriate for the new sociotechnical world in which we find ourselves

~Do you agree with Bannon's depiction of relationship between people and technology?

~How can HCI best incorporate the human, social, and organizational complexity that Bannondescribes?


I reimagining hci1

I. Reimagining HCI

How HCI has changed

“Please evaluate our user interface, and make it easy to use”

“Please help us design this user interface so that it is easy to use”

“Please help us find what the users really need so that we know how to design this user interface”

“Look at this area of life, and find us something interesting!”

Bannon. L. (2011). Reimagining HCI: Toward a More Human-Centered Perspective. Interactions, 18(4)


I reimagining hci2

I. Reimagining HCI

HCI emerged from human factors engineering in the 80s from concerns about human aspects of working with computer systems

Origin in time-motion studies assuming that the person (cheap) should fit the machine(expensive)

Rise of industrial automation until researchers saw that there were limits to what could be automated

Designing complex sociotechnical safety-critical systems depended more on understanding human, social, technical and organizational complexity

Human error is no longer an acceptable explanation when systems don’t work well


I reimagining hci3

I. Reimagining HCI

HCI emerged from human factors engineering in the 80s from concerns about human aspects of working with computer systems

Origin in time-motion studies assuming that the person (cheap) should fit the machine(expensive)

Rise of industrial automation until researchers saw that there were limits to what could be automated

Designing complex sociotechnical safety-critical systems depended more on understanding human, social, technical and organizational complexity

Human error is no longer an acceptable explanation when systems don’t work well


I reimagining hci4

I. Reimagining HCI

Emergence of CSCW is indicative of a sociological turn that has influenced HCI, particularly through workplace studies

Participative design was also an important influence

Moving beyond the individual user and outside of the lab

Lesson: systems are sociotechnical and are produced in and through the actions of people and systems in the course of the day

People as competent human actors with skill sets that could be augmented via computer applications


I reimagining hci5

I. Reimagining HCI

Who learns what from the new human-computer interaction: Toward a new perspective

Swanson argues that in order to respond to sociotechnical changes that are leading to ubiquitous computing, HCI has to respond by reformulating its foundations

To do this, theory and research should be based on analysis of four different types of interactions that make up most of our computer mediated experiences

~Do you agree with Swanson's argument?

~Do these types of interactions capture the ways that you used your technologies?


I reimagining hci6

I. Reimagining HCI

New phase of HCI

Narrow-form interaction with devices more seamlessly serves broader form interaction among people and organizations, especially over the Web

This machine-aided broader-form interaction among purposeful individuals constitutes an important change

They choose the ends they pursue, not just the means

Organizations interact with others by means of computer-based systems which serve as machine agents in their electronic transactions

Swanson, E. (2012) Who learns what from the new human-computer interaction: Toward a new perspective. AMCIS 2012 Proceedings. Paper 2.


I reimagining hci7

I. Reimagining HCI

Interaction and information

Because each party is responsive to the other(s), interaction is fundamentally informative to participants

An exchange of information always takes place, even when interaction takes place for another purpose

Interaction is fundamentally dynamic and adaptive, and its course and outcome are path-dependent

Attributes: intensity, richness, structure, and extent or length

Any party to an interaction can be represented by a machine agent


I reimagining hci8

I. Reimagining HCI

Types of interaction

Informational: one party seeks information from others (demand-pull), and/or others seek to provide it (supply-push)

Revolves around the supply and demand of information

A goal is to inform the actions of others

Cooperational: two or more parties act together to accomplish a task

Information is shared and knowledge gained in the process

Sharing as a means to accomplish a collective task


I reimagining hci9

I. Reimagining HCI

Types of interaction

Transactional interaction: two parties exchange goods, services, monies, and information pertinent to the terms of the transaction

The information generated and shared typically establishes and explicates the terms of the transaction

Social interaction, two or more parties interact with each other around their mutual interests, and information is shared in the process

The information generated and exchanged between the parties is often incidental to the interaction itself


I reimagining hci10

I. Reimagining HCI

Interaction and learning

Informational

What the seeker learns from an exchange is subject to the interests and sometimes control of the provider,

Especially when the provider wishes to influence the learning outcome

The provider can be an organization or a person

The seeker will try to ascertain and learn about the reliability of the provider

The provider will try to influence the seeker


I reimagining hci11

I. Reimagining HCI

Interaction and learning

Cooperational

Allows participant and collective learning and maintenance of organizational knowledge (KM)

Transactional

Each party knows what information to exchange to complete the transaction

This is needed to enforce the terms of the contract

Information may be acquired by all parties to the transaction including those with oversight


I reimagining hci12

I. Reimagining HCI

Interaction and learning

Social

Each participant learns from the process, but much of this is incidental to the interaction itself

Information is likely to be shared, but asymmetrically

Information is not necessarily sought, nor is it necessarily strategically proffered

The social exchange takes place for its own sake and valuable social ties are built and maintained

Who learns what from the new HCI varies significantly according to the forms of interaction that motivate it


Hci concepts and practices1

HCI concepts and practices

I. Reimagining HCI

• Human-centered design

• New approaches to HCI

II. New concerns

• HCI and affect

III. HCI careers

• Where do you do it?

• What do you do?


Ii new concerns

II. New concerns

Theories, methods and current research on emotions in library and information science, information retrieval and human–computer interaction

Lopatovska and Arapakispropose that HCI take affect into account in much more serious and focused ways than in the past

Their literature review presents major findings and insights from the study of emotions s and computing

~Do emotions influence your ability to interact with computing devices? How? Why is this important?

~What kinds of design recommendations might come from this research?


Ii new concerns1

II. New concerns

Emotions are an integral component of human activities, including human–computer interactions

Neurological evidence shows that they perform regulatory and utilitarian functions

Facilitate rational decision making and perception

HCI has come late to the party

‘‘Affective computing” and ‘‘emotional design” refer to the integration of emotions in the design of IS to make them more natural for humans to understand and use

Lopatovska, I and Arapakis, I. (2011). Theories, methods and current research on emotions in library and information science, information retrieval and human–computer interaction. Information Processing and Management, 47(4). 575-592.


Ii new concerns2

II. New concerns

There is a lack of consensus and uniformity about what emotions are and how we can represent them

Theories of emotion can be grouped into two main categories

Cognitive: cognition as a necessary element of emotion with a goal of explaining subjective manifestations of emotional experiences

Cognition can be conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional and a judgment or thought

Emotion as reaction to an event consisting of affect, awareness of an emotional object, appraisal of the object, action readiness and automatic arousal


Ii new concerns3

II. New concerns

Theories of emotion can be grouped into two main categories

The second emphasizes somatic factors and seeks to describe emotional expressions and perceptions of emotional expressions

Somatic theories argue that bodily responses, and not cognitive judgments, cause emotional reactions

Emotions as psychosomatic states that evolve due to their adaptive value in dealing with life tasks

Primary function is to mobilize an organism to respond quickly to events, similar to those encountered in the past


Ii new concerns4

II. New concerns

Both theories are used

Studies where participants explain their feelings follow evaluative components of emotional reaction

Studies measuring spontaneous bodily responses to emotional stimuli follow somatic theories of emotion

Two views on emotions’ structure

Discrete: six or more basic emotions exist which are universally displayed and recognized

Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise

Continuous: assumes existence of two or more dimensions that describe and distinguish emotions


Ii new concerns5

II. New concerns

Methods

Lab work measures the following emotion components

Changes in the appraisal processes (at all levels of the nervous system)

Responses produced in the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems

Motivational changes brought by the appraisal process

Facial, vocal and bodily indications

Nature of the subjectively experienced emotional state that relates to the above component changes


Ii new concerns6

II. New concerns

Critique of lab work

Limits mobility causing changes in emotional reactions

Aging and unanticipated changes in physiology (accidents, surgery) introduce noise into measurement of neuro-physiological signals

Inability to map neurophysiological data to specific emotions (e.g., frustration)

Difficulties in translating temporal micro-resolutions (milliseconds) to temporal units relevant to emotional responses

Reliance on non-transparent measurement instruments (sensors that constrain movements)


Ii new concerns7

II. New concerns

Observer methods

Assumes emotions are primarily communicated through facial expressions rather than bodily gestures

Observation of facial, vocal and gesture cues to emotional stimuli

Facial cues are an essential aspect of social interaction, help to clarify the focus of attention and regulate human interactions with the surrounding environment

FACS: recognizes facial expressions of six universally distinguished emotions

Fear, surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, and combinations


Ii new concerns8

II. New concerns

Critique of observational methods

Most automatic emotion software has been designed using static images of faces without facial hair or glasses, taken under good illumination conditions during extreme emotional episodes

Can’t draw accurate inferences about observed emotions that are expressed during longer episodes, which occur in more naturalistic settings

Facial expression recognition is not human emotion recognition

They can be influenced by non-emotional mental and physiological activities


Ii new concerns9

II. New concerns

Self-report methods

Assumes we are able and willing to recognize and report their emotions

Reliability and validity are evident from high correlations of self-reports with quality ofphysical stimuli and neurological brain activities

The discrete approach relies on the semantics-based categories that correspond to unique emotion patterns

A list of emotion terms is provided to a respondent who decides which term best describes the emotional experience, rate its intensity and state how long the emotion has been experienced


Ii new concerns10

II. New concerns

Critique of self-report methods

The possibility that one or several response alternatives may bias the respondent to choose them

The situation when a respondent wishes to refer to a category that is not provided on the list

The situation when a respondent may be unfamiliar with the labels chosen by a researcher

The limitation of human memory, especially with past emotional experiences


Ii new concerns11

II. New concerns

Types of findings about affect and computing

Specific search behaviors, such as left mouse clicks or wheel scrolls up, were associated with unique patterns of emotional expressions preceding and following them

Whether body movements or gestures are indicative of specific emotions is a subject under debate

HCI and IR observer method of inferring emotions from interactive behaviors captured in log files

There is a correlation between search behaviors, such as time spent on the search result page and number of result pages viewed, with searcher satisfaction and dissatisfaction


Ii new concerns12

II. New concerns

IR studies are focusing on emotions as descriptors of information and are forming a new area of emotional IR research

Positive emotions: associated with satisfactory search results, successful search completion, use of online systems, easier tasks, interest in the process and documents, or documents’ stylistic features

Negative emotions: associated with frustrating aspects of systems, uncertain search tasks and confusing search strategies, software failures, uncertainty prior to the search, difficulties in finding the answer and inadequate knowledge of a system


Ii how will this change hci work

II. How will this change HCI work?

Human-computer interaction design in science fiction movies

Schmitz et al. discuss the changing relationship between HCI research and science fiction movies

They claim that the trend in portrayals of technology has been from movies incorporating current ICT developments, to movies inspiring HCI research, to collaborations between directors and researchers

~What technology have you seen in a recent movie that you think will be developed soon?

~How are current movies shaping our expectations about new technologies?


Ii how will this change hci work1

II. How will this change HCI work?

The relationship between science fiction and HCI has evolved over the years

Early sci-fi did not treat technology seriously

First directors incorporated technology into the movies

Then ideas from movies inspired HCI researchers

Now directors and HCI researchers work together on devices to be used in movies

Affected by budgets and role of ICT in the plot

Gives us a view of the state of the art

Schmitz, M., Endres, C. and Butz, A. (2008). A survey of human-computer interaction design in science fiction movies. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on INtelligentTEchnologies for interactive enterTAINment, Article #7.


Hci concepts and practices

II. How will this change HCI work?

Examples are the treatment of speech recognition and biometrics

Research is not catching up

There are also newer ideas

Invasive neural interfaces, ID methods, input/output devices, tricorders

Collaboration between directors and researchers to present a technologically feasible future

Important because of the effects movies have on viewers’ expectations and demands


Hci concepts and practices

II. How will this change HCI work?

Ignorance of interaction programming is killing people

Thimbleby describes a form of artifact design, interaction programming

He argues for its importance by describing ways in which errors in the use of medical devices are enabled by the device’s design and result in life-threatening situations

~In what ways is interaction programming different from HCI?

~What are his suggestions for improving the design of these devices?


Hci concepts and practices

II. How will this change HCI work?

Thimbleby raises the stakes for HCI by discussing deaths caused by decimal point errors

He argues that interaction programming can make a critical contribution towards reducing these deaths

Good interaction programming must be engineered into devices before they are marketed

Usability techniques are important but they are not sufficient to ensure safe interaction

Especially with medical devices

Programmers must take insights of HCI seriously

Thimbleby, H. (2008). Ignorance of interaction programming is killing people. Interactions 15(5). 52-57.


Hci concepts and practices

II. How will this change HCI work?

There are federal-level standardized procedures for writing drug dosages that specify syntax, spacing an symbols

Medical device manufacturers often ignore these standards

Problems entering decimals are particularly important

“Medical errors in hospitals in a given year cause about as many deaths as AIDS, car accidents, and breast cancer combined”

Interaction programming, carefully done, can reduce the cognitive load on medical professionals


Ii new methods and approaches

II. New methods and approaches

Nielsen on usability: how easy user interfaces are to use

Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design?

Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks?

Memorability: When users return to the design, how easily can they reestablish proficiency?

Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are they, and how easily can usrs recover from them?

Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?

www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-101-introduction-to-usability/


Ii new methods and approaches1

II. New methods and approaches

Another view

1. What are users' initial impressions of the site or product?

2. With which specific features or functions of the site or product do users have difficulty?

Are features intuitive?

How does each aspect influence users' overall perceptions?

How does the site or product compare to alternative or competitive market offerings?

Informa Research Services. (2006). Usability Testing Program. www.informars.com/mt/special/usability.htm


Ii new methods and approaches2

II. New methods and approaches

3. What improvements in (either) site or product features would better meet user needs?

4. Will the improvements to (either) site or product sufficiently ensure its future use or recommendation?

5. What are the costs/benefits of not meeting user expectations?

6. What are the profiles of satisfied and dissatisfied users?

Can these profiles point to usage levels, demographics, or purchase likelihood?


Hci concepts and practices2

HCI concepts and practices

I. Doing the work

• Mental models

• Credibility

II. New methods and approaches

• HCI and affect

III. HCI careers

• Where do you do it?

• What do you do?


Iii hci careers

III. HCI careers

Where do you do it?

Large corporations

Specialized with a department, usually IT or R&D

Interdepartmental collaboration with marketing, management, design

What do you do?

Design and conduct lab studies

Conduct advanced user research

Planning and management

Consulting


Iii hci careers1

III. HCI careers

Where is the work?

Small business or organization

The smaller the organization is, the more you have to be a generalist

Less likely to be part of a team

Self employed

You become an independent contractor

Typically a consultant or specialists for short term work

This is the riskiest alternative


Iii hci careers2

III. HCI careers

Typical job titles

Usability engineer

Website usability manager

User research specialist

Websiteaccessibility manager

User experience lead

Ecommerce test manager

Human factors engineer

Ergonomics engineer


Iii hci careers3

III. HCI careers

What do you do?

Typical responsibilities

Prepare/conduct oral and written presentations

Apply human factors criteria/principles

Develop analytical models/methods

Use quantitative/qualitative task analysis methods, usability testing

Interpret test/evaluation/research results

Maintain familiarity with major HCI literature

Understand the software/product development process


Iii hci careers4

III. HCI careers

Typical background and preparation

Research-oriented positions emphasize formal training

High-level degrees required (Masters/PhD)

Often in another field (cognitive science, sociology, information science)

Technically-oriented positions:

More emphasis on practical experience and technical skills (programming and markup languages)

Less emphasis on formal training

Sometimes combined into HCI/IA-related position, particularly in small organizations


Iii hci careers5

III. HCI careers

Typical tasks

Requirements assessments

Involves one or more of data gathering strategies

Lab sessions, contextual inquiry, card sorts, inspections, walkthroughs

Analysis and presentation of data

Requirements assessments allow you to determine the

Purpose of product, intended audience

Technical requirements and limitations, key task scenarios


Iii hci careers6

III. HCI careers

Writing the report

A good usability report must be usable

Keep it short: no more than ~50 comments and ~30 pages

Limit comments to the ones that are really important

Provide a one-page executive summary on page 2

Include the top three positive comments and the top three problems

Perfetti, C. (2003). Usability testing best practices: An interview with Rolf Molich. Webpronews.com. www.webpronews.com/webdevelopment/sitedesign/wpn-26-20030730UsabilityTestingBest PracticesAnInterviewwithRolfMolich.html


Iii hci careers7

III. HCI careers

Writing the report

Include positive findings: ideal ratio between positive and negative findings is 1:1 (it’s more often 1:3)

Classify the comments

Distinguish between disasters, serious problems, minor problems, positive findings, bugs and suggestions for improving the interface

A perfect report is useless if it doesn't cause beneficial changes to the user interface

Good communication with the development team is as important as a good test report


Iii hci careers8

III. HCI careers

Principal Usability Specialist-User Experience at Newell Rubbermaid

Newell Rubbermaid is a global marketer of consumer and commercial products that touch the lives of people where they live, work and play

Our globally recognized brands include Sharpie, Paper Mate, DYMO, EXPO, Waterman, Parker, Rolodex, IRWIN, LENOX, Rubbermaid, Graco, Calphalon, Goody, and Teutonia.

As a Principal Usability Specialist you will work with teams located in Newell Rubbermaid’s new 40,000-square-foot design headquarters in Kalamazoo, Michigan, in the Business, Technology and Research Park of Western Michigan

Immersion labs for the company’s priority business segments will enable design and engineering teams to evaluate product prototypes and imagine the possibilities of future product roadmaps and a Usability Lab for testing our products

You will collaborate closely with Usability Specialists, Industrial Designers and Graphic Designers to create user experiences for the next generation of consumer products


Iii hci careers9

III. HCI careers

Essential Duties:

Act as a primary interface with key Segments relative to usability issues and opportunities

Work closely with Director, Usability to properly drive change management in the organization around the embedment of human sciences as a skill set and competency

Work closely with design counterparts to effectively deliver industry leading user experience solutions

Responsible for managing and planning all projects/activities within a specific segment

Partner closely with all relevant Segments to ensure the deployment and adherence to established human factors design guidelines. Also own and maintain those guidelines and update/modify as required to keep relevant.

Effectively execute user-centered design activities and research throughout the product development process

Conduct usability and ergonomic research


Iii hci careers10

III. HCI careers

Educational Requirements:

Ten years + of relevant experience working as a usability/human factors professional in a corporate or consulting environment

Minimum: MS in Human Factors Engineering, Cognitive Psychology, Ergonomics/Anthropometrics or related field

Work Experience Requirements:

Ability to present in English

Excellent communication, presentation and negotiation skills

Must be highly skilled in applying ergonomic and anthropometric data to drive requirements and improvements in products

Must possess strong influence management skills and be able to effectively deal with ambiguous situations and make decisions based on imperfect information

Must have experience with ergonomics/anthropometrics of physical components such as pens, tools or other hand held devices


Iii hci careers11

III. HCI careers

Work Experience Requirements:

Must have experience doing all of the activities in the UCD process from initial information gathering to testing and documentation/specifications

Must be able to fully conduct an entire usability study: moderate, take notes, plan and design the research activities.

Demonstrate ability to work in team environments

Must have proven ability to deliver winning, marketplace validated usability solutions and work effectively across cross functional work teams

Self-motivated and flexible. Willing to learn new things

Proven ability to drive multiple programs simultaneously

Ability to work independently toward project goals and timelines with no direction

Ability to occasionally travel and work internationally


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