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第一讲. 清洁生产基本知识. 1 、清洁生产的由来 2 、清洁生产的定义和内涵 3 、清洁生产的主要内容 4 、国内外清洁生产发展动态. 1 、清洁生产的由来. 1.1 当前面临的环境问题 1.2 环境问题的思考 1.3 解决污染方法的演进. 1.1 当前面临的环境问题. 目前,环境问题已从局部的、小范围的环境污染与生态破坏,逐渐演变成了区域性、以至全球性的环境问题。 威胁人类生存与发展的十大环境问题:全球变暖、大气污染、水体污染、酸雨、海洋污染、臭氧层破坏、生物物种减少、森林锐减、土地荒漠化和固体废物污染. 全球变暖.

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第一讲

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1

2

3

4


1

1.1

1.2

1.3


1.1


2080190.620501.51.6


2004 33.1%66.9%


  • 23002


  • 2004pH5.658.9%

  • SO2NOx


200412.020.0%1792.07.7%6.855.7%963.0


19851989

CFCs


60010001100


  • 50~100



200490%,200


1.2


241241


1750, 30%65

CO2

GDP



1.3

1.3.1

1

//



2

1EPA()1972260GNP1%1987850801200GNP2.8%GNPO607


22030%3001500

3200031405000



()



1.3.2

1

UNEP1989519743M3PPollution Prevention Pays)UNEP199010


  • 1992


  • 1993


2

2.1

2.2

2.3


2.1

  • UNEP1996


2.1


2.2


2.2



2.3


200535


1

1000550334%


/()

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

2003

2004

20051-9

2


3


  • 4

    80

    90

    20061


3

  • 3.1

  • 3.2

  • 3.3

  • 3.4


3.1

1

2

3


1

2006



2


3


3.2


198850mg/kg


3.3


CODCOD3.2104t/a,COD470t/a20.8384t123.8431.17


3.4



135

212


4

  • 4.1

  • 4.2


4.1

  • 2060

  • 1976

  • 1979

  • 1984-87

  • 1989UNEP IE/PAC

  • 1990UNEP

  • 199221

  • 1996

  • 1998

  • 2000


4.1

    • 1984

    • 1990

    • 1991EPA

    • 1987


4.1

    • //

    • P2

    • 3R3RReduce, Reuse, Recycle


4.2

  • 80

  • 1992

  • 1993

  • 199421

  • 1996

  • 1997

  • 1999

  • 2002

  • 2004


4.2

    • 13

    • 1

    • 4

    • 19


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