2007 week 1 2
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2007 - Week 1.2. Some Fundamental Items from PHYSICS. Assignment-. Begin reading the Background Notes that are posted on the website. Roughly pages 1-18. From Our Discussion. Elements of Music Structured/Designed Sound Some pleasant – bells, most musical instruments Some nasty – whip

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2007 - Week 1.2

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2007 week 1 2

2007 - Week 1.2

Some Fundamental Items from

PHYSICS


Assignment

Assignment-

  • Begin reading the Background Notes that are posted on the website.

  • Roughly pages 1-18


From our discussion

From Our Discussion

  • Elements of Music

    • Structured/Designed Sound

      • Some pleasant – bells, most musical instruments

      • Some nasty – whip

      • Some intermediate - drums

    • Rhythm (time)

    • Tones (Not defined, though)

    • Loudness

    • Pleasurable ????

    • Message ???? Must there be one? What Kind?


Bone flute music is older than i am

Bone Flute – Music is older than I am!

50,000 years or more

Neanderthal

reconstructions


Where did instruments come from

Where did instruments come from???


What does this mean

What does this mean?


Lightening

Lightening

  • Takes time to get to you or you are in big trouble.

    • Speed = distance/time

    • What is distance?

    • What is time?


Sound a disturbance

Sound --- A “disturbance”


Important definitions

Important Definitions

  • Length or Distance

    • How “far” something moves or travels.

    • Measured against some agreed upon standard.

Length Standard .. The Gorf

1 2 3 4 1/8

= 4 1/8 Gorfs

Unknown Length


The real standard

The real standard:

The Meter


Systems of units

Systems of Units

  • SI Units …. Meters, Seconds, Newtons/Kilograms

  • English System ….. Feet/yards, seconds, pounds/poundals


More important definitions

More Important Definitions

  • TIME

    • The subjective “distance” between two EVENTS.

      • It needs to be objective … ie measurable and reproducible.

    • Original Clock – The Earth’s Rotation

      • “It is two days journey”

    • Today’s Clocks –

      • “He ran the race in 4 hours, 2 minutes and 21.85 seconds”


Things that tick at some rate

Things that “tick” at some rate

  • The planet … once a day

  • The Pendulum .. Depends on a number of things;

  • Parameters:

Mounting

Length

Weight,

whatever

that is.


In case you care

In case you care…..

We will discuss this “g-thing” when we

get to acceleration.


Sun clock

Sun Clock


Water clocks

Water Clocks


And so on

And so on …

Rolex (~$10K) Atomic Clock (NASA) $ megabucks


The music clock the metronome

The music clock: the Metronome

112 quarter notes per minute.

Tempo

Kind of

Pendulum


We hear music and other noise in our brains

We hear music (and other noise) in our brains.

Sound


And you didn t even know that you have one

And you didn’t even know that you have one!

Sound Waves push against

your

TympanicMembrane

What is a wave, what is a push??


Inside your head

D

d

Inside your head

To Brain


In order to understand musical tones and their relationship to each other we need to understand

In order to understand musical tones and their relationship to each other, we need to understand

GRAPHS!


A graph what does it all mean

100

snail

distance (meters)

50

rabbit

1

2

time (seconds)

A graph … what does it all mean?


Speed

Speed


2007 week 1 2

100

snail

distance (meters)

50

rabbit

1

2

time (seconds)

So….

Snail goes 100 meters in

2 seconds …

Speed=100m/2s

Speed = 2 meters/second


Notice

Notice


2007 week 1 2

Also

  • Velocity is speed in a particular direction.

  • Velocity: 120 m/hr NORTH

  • Speed: 120 m/hr (or mph)


Example

Example

  • Sound travels about 1100 ft per second.

  • How much time does it take for sound to travel about 1 mile?


Another graph a biggy

1.5

1

0.5

0

disturbance

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time (seconds)

Another Graph .. a biggy!


Important definitions1

Important Definitions

The PERIOD, T is the time it takes to go from one condition to the next time that exact condition is repeated.

The frequency, the number of oscillations per second, is given by:


2007 week 1 2

1.5

1

0.5

disturbance

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time (seconds)

Period = 6 seconds

Frequency=1/6 per sec (Hz)

=0.16 sec = 160 ms

6 sec


Siren a scientific instrument

Siren … a scientific instrument


The graph

The Graph


100 bottles of beer on the wall

100 Bottles of beer on the wall …


Resonance later

Resonance (later)

Loudness

Rotational Speed

(Turns/second)


Helmholtz resonators

Helmholtz Resonators


2007 week 1 2

Piano

Keyboard


Helmholtz s results

Helmholtz’s Results


2007 week 1 2

Next ...

Fun with Strings


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