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2007 - Week 1.2. Some Fundamental Items from PHYSICS. Assignment-. Begin reading the Background Notes that are posted on the website. Roughly pages 1-18. From Our Discussion. Elements of Music Structured/Designed Sound Some pleasant – bells, most musical instruments Some nasty – whip

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2007 - Week 1.2

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2007 - Week 1.2

Some Fundamental Items from

PHYSICS


Assignment-

  • Begin reading the Background Notes that are posted on the website.

  • Roughly pages 1-18


From Our Discussion

  • Elements of Music

    • Structured/Designed Sound

      • Some pleasant – bells, most musical instruments

      • Some nasty – whip

      • Some intermediate - drums

    • Rhythm (time)

    • Tones (Not defined, though)

    • Loudness

    • Pleasurable ????

    • Message ???? Must there be one? What Kind?


Bone Flute – Music is older than I am!

50,000 years or more

Neanderthal

reconstructions


Where did instruments come from???


What does this mean?


Lightening

  • Takes time to get to you or you are in big trouble.

    • Speed = distance/time

    • What is distance?

    • What is time?


Sound --- A “disturbance”


Important Definitions

  • Length or Distance

    • How “far” something moves or travels.

    • Measured against some agreed upon standard.

Length Standard .. The Gorf

1 2 3 4 1/8

= 4 1/8 Gorfs

Unknown Length


The real standard:

The Meter


Systems of Units

  • SI Units …. Meters, Seconds, Newtons/Kilograms

  • English System ….. Feet/yards, seconds, pounds/poundals


More Important Definitions

  • TIME

    • The subjective “distance” between two EVENTS.

      • It needs to be objective … ie measurable and reproducible.

    • Original Clock – The Earth’s Rotation

      • “It is two days journey”

    • Today’s Clocks –

      • “He ran the race in 4 hours, 2 minutes and 21.85 seconds”


Things that “tick” at some rate

  • The planet … once a day

  • The Pendulum .. Depends on a number of things;

  • Parameters:

Mounting

Length

Weight,

whatever

that is.


In case you care…..

We will discuss this “g-thing” when we

get to acceleration.


Sun Clock


Water Clocks


And so on …

Rolex (~$10K) Atomic Clock (NASA) $ megabucks


The music clock: the Metronome

112 quarter notes per minute.

Tempo

Kind of

Pendulum


We hear music (and other noise) in our brains.

Sound


And you didn’t even know that you have one!

Sound Waves push against

your

TympanicMembrane

What is a wave, what is a push??


D

d

Inside your head

To Brain


In order to understand musical tones and their relationship to each other, we need to understand

GRAPHS!


100

snail

distance (meters)

50

rabbit

1

2

time (seconds)

A graph … what does it all mean?


Speed


100

snail

distance (meters)

50

rabbit

1

2

time (seconds)

So….

Snail goes 100 meters in

2 seconds …

Speed=100m/2s

Speed = 2 meters/second


Notice


Also

  • Velocity is speed in a particular direction.

  • Velocity: 120 m/hr NORTH

  • Speed: 120 m/hr (or mph)


Example

  • Sound travels about 1100 ft per second.

  • How much time does it take for sound to travel about 1 mile?


1.5

1

0.5

0

disturbance

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time (seconds)

Another Graph .. a biggy!


Important Definitions

The PERIOD, T is the time it takes to go from one condition to the next time that exact condition is repeated.

The frequency, the number of oscillations per second, is given by:


1.5

1

0.5

disturbance

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time (seconds)

Period = 6 seconds

Frequency=1/6 per sec (Hz)

=0.16 sec = 160 ms

6 sec


Siren … a scientific instrument


The Graph


100 Bottles of beer on the wall …


Resonance (later)

Loudness

Rotational Speed

(Turns/second)


Helmholtz Resonators


Piano

Keyboard


Helmholtz’s Results


Next ...

Fun with Strings


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