List and define the 5 themes of geography
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List and define the 5 themes of geography.

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List and define the 5 themes of geography

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List and define the 5 themes of geography


Place- describe what makes a location different from another location; I have different kinds of features such as: water landforms, climate, soil, vegetation, airports, highways, buildings, bridges, and parks.Location - describe where something is found Human Environment Interaction -describe how people impact our earth and environment and how people adapt to live in their surroundings Region- Describes areas that have common featuresMovement- describe how people and things are transported from one place to another


List the three different map types


Physical maps 2. Political maps 3. Thematic maps


Which maps show the natural features of the Earth?


Physical Map


Which maps can represent a variety of information including things like climate, precipitation, vegetation, elevation, population, life expectancy, etc?


Thematic Map


Which maps show how humans have impacted the landscape? For example, city names, roads, country borders, etc. are all part of political maps


Political Map


Which part tells what the map is about? This is the first part of the map you should look at.


Title


This tells the cardinal directions, which are north, south, east, and west.


Compass Rose


This explains what the symbols on a map represent, such as triangles representing trees.


Key or Legend


This part of the map is made parallels and meridians


Grid


These lines run across the globe horizontally


Latitude


These lines run up and down, vertically on the globe


longitude


This line cuts the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere in half


equator


This line cuts the eastern and western hemisphere in half


Prime Meridian


What are the 8 key features of a civilization


Cities2. Central Governments3. Complex Religion Stable 4. Food Supplies 5. Job Specialization6. Social Classes7. Arts & Architecture8. Writing


Which key feature is described below:Usually originated with priestsInitially used to create calendars and keep records of offerings to the godsGovernment will use writing to keep track of public records – taxes, treaties, “official” documents


Writing


Which key feature is described below:People were ranked in society based on the importance of their jobPriests and warriors were typically considered the most important


Social Classes


Which key feature is described below:This was created in order to express beliefs and to honor important figures and deitiesMost major construction were building for religious purposes – temples, tombs – to honor their gods


Arts & Architecture


Which key feature is described below: A society needs to have enough of this so it can survive, plus some extra to trade.Trading this for goods leads to job specialization


Stable Food Supplies


Which key feature is described below:When there is a surplus of food people no longer have to hunt and gather all day.They started to focus on the task or craft they were best atArtisans develop techniques and technologies to make their task easier and more efficient


Job Specialization


Which key feature is described below:Gods controlled forces of Indus Valley Prayer Statuettes naturePriests were needed to convey the will of the godsIt was everyone’s responsibility to make sure the gods were happy


Complex Religion


Which key feature is described below:Needed to oversee irrigation projects and other public worksEnsure steady supply of foodCreate and uphold lawsDefend citizens Collect taxes


Central Governments


Which key feature is described below:Center of tradeCenters of cultural diffusion


Cities


Which continent was Mesopotamia located on?


Asia


Which continent is Egypt located on?


Africa


Which continent is India located on?


Asia


Which continent is Peru located on?


South America


Which continent is the United States located on?


North America


Which continent is China located on?


Asia


Which continent is England, France, and Germany located on?


Europe


Name 3 comparisons of the Neolithic and Paleolithic Era’s


Both

  • Both used stone tools as well as bones, sticks, shells, and other materials

  • People in both periods had some form of religion.

  • People included both meat and vegetables in their diet

  • Used fire to cook and fire pottery


Name 3 contrasts of the Neolithic and Paleolithic Era’s


PaleolithicLasted from around 2 million to around 12,000 years ago.People were hunters and gathers; spent lives seeking food.Constant struggle for survival; lives were short.People lived mostly in caves found following migrating animals.Cave paintings/drawings believed to have been part of religious rituals about the hunt.Tombs with bones, food, tools, and weapons indicate belief in life after deathPeople lived in small groups, led by tribal elder or strongest hunter.Women were mainly gatherers and were knowledgeable about plants and herbsDeveloped many new skills including the use and making of fire.NeolithicLasted from about 10,000 until about 4,000 B.C.People farmed, settled in villages, and built permanent homes.No longer need to search for food, so people developed new job skills.Division of labor meant different people did different jobs that contributed to the needs of the community.System of weights and measurements established “payment” of goods and servicesStrong leaders gained power and made laws to protect peopleKings and gods were worshipped; temples were built for formal religious ceremoniesPeople worshiped many godsVillages grew into citiesCities traded goods with other cities


Why was Mesopotamia one of the earliest areas of settlement in world history?


Because the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers was fertile for farming


What current day country is Mesopotamia located in?


IRAQ


What were 4 empires of Ancient Mesopotamia?


SumerianAkkadianBabylonianAssyrian


Mesopotamia was located between which two rivers?


Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


How did the city-states of Mesopotamia use written language in the organization of their societies?


Writing allowed people to keep records of their transactions People could send messages with couriers to far away lands without travelingWriting allowed people to pass on their accumulated knowledge to future generations


How do the laws of Hammurabi compare to our laws today?


Both Hammurabi's Code and our laws today prescribed specific punishments for citizens who brake the law.


What are the major geographic features of ancient Egypt?


Egypt boarders both the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea making it easy for Trade.There are desserts to the East and West, making it difficult for others to conquer Egypt.And the Niles river flows through Egypt, which creates a good environment for farming.


What were the religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Egyptians?


The Egyptians believed in many gods who controlled different thingsThey built temples and shrines to honor their gods.The Egyptians believed in an “afterlife.”


What was the Egyptian writing system called?


Egyptians developed a form of picture or symbol writing known as hieroglyphics.


Name four contributions of Ancient Egypt.


Language: HieroglyphicsArchitecture: PyramidsInventions: 365 day calendar, papyrus (paper), irrigation system, mathematics, medicine, weapons, chariotsArt: statues, paintings, jewelry


Name and describe the 4 types of government


Monarchy (rule of a king) Oligarchy (rule of the few) Tyranny (rule by one who ruled without legal authority) Democracy (rule of the people)


How did the geography of Greece isolate developing city-states


Numerous MOUNTAIN RANGES, which crisscross the peninsula, made it hard for cities to communicate and led to the development of independent city-states.


Who was a citizen in Athens and what were their rights and responsibilities?


Only adult males born in Athens were citizens. They were part of the assembly and had the responsibility to vote.


Where was the birth place of democracy?


Athens


What are 4 cultural achievements of Ancient Greece?


Greek Literature & DramaGreek ArchitectureGreek MathematicsGreek PhilosophyGreek Astronomy & GeographyGreek EngineeringGreek Art Greek SculptureGreek Medicine


Discuss two ways in which the Roman Empire adapted to its geography?


Rome adapted to it’s geography buy building Roads. The second way is through the use of waterways buy building deep harbors and ships for trade.


Name three achievements of the Ancient Romans that have influenced American culture today.


Latin LanguagesRoman CalendarRoman LawRoman ArchitectureAqueducts, hot water systemsRoman RoadsSpread of Christianity


Explain the political, social, economic, and military factors that contributed to the fall of Rome.


How did Confucianism and Daoism create order in ancient China?


Confucius taught that society worked well when all people behaved well. Values such as respect for elders, proper behavior and love of education became woven into Chinese culture.Daoism taught that people gained happiness and peace by living in harmony with nature. This encouraged rulers to govern less harshly


What were the main ideas of Confucianism?


What was the Silk Road and how did it affect Chinese society and the world?


The Silk Road was a network of routes stretching more than 4,000 miles across Asia’s deserts and mountain ranges, through the Middle East and stopping at the Mediterranean Sea.China grew rich from trading silk with other lands.


What were some of the accomplishments of Ancient China?


PaperPrintingThe CompassGunpowderKitesSilk Road


How did the geography of the Indian subcontinent isolate India from the rest of the world?


India is largely separated from Asia by the Himalayan Mountains in the north and the Hindu Kush Mountains in the west.West of the Himalayas is a vast desert.


What are the main beliefs and practices of the Hindu religion?


-Believe in many gods-Gains Moksha and become on with everything in universe-Believe in existence of the Soul-believed in rebirth/reincarnation-looked to achieve enlightenment


What was the social structure set up by the Caste system?


There were 4 social castesBrahmins – Priests, Teachers, Judges; usually don’t own land therefore need other castes to work the land and provide for themKshatriyas – Warriors and Rulers (landowners)Vaisyas – Skilled Traders, Merchants, FarmersSudras – Unskilled Workers—Laborers and Craft workersBelow these four castes are people who belong to no casteUntouchables– Outcastes, Children of God


What are the main teachings of Buddhism?


-No belief in gods

-Gains Nirvana by detaching from everything until nothing remains

-Buddha is the founder

-Does not believe in existence of the Soul

-believed in rebirth/reincarnation -looked to achieve enlightenment


Compare and Contrast Hinduism and Buddhism.


Hinduism

-Belief in gods

-Gains Moksha and become on with everything in universe

-No founder

-Believe in existence of the Soul

Both-Started in India-believed in rebirth/reincarnation-looked to achieve enlightenment

Buddhism

-No belief in gods

-Gains Nirvana by detaching from everything until nothing remains

-Buddha is the founder

-Does not believe in existence of the Soul


What were the major achievements of the Gupta Empire?


Universities

Literature

Painting

Sculpture

Metalwork

Mathematics


Describe the difference between the government of the Maya and the government of the Inca


The Maya were NOT AN EMPIRE and NOT UNITED politically…Inca government was well organized and the Sapa Inca(Emperor) was the absolute ruler


Where were the Mayan’s, Aztec, and Inca located?


Aztecs were located in central Mexico, their capital is modern day Mexico city Mayans were located in Yucatan Peninsula- Mexico and Guatemala Inca were located in Peruin the Andes Mountain


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