Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection
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Innovative Strategies for the Management of HIV Infection. Dual therapies without NRTIs Jean-Guy Baril, MD Clinique médicale du Quartier Latin CHUM. This activity is supported by an educational grant from:.

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Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

Innovative Strategies for the Managementof HIV Infection

Dual therapies without NRTIs

Jean-Guy Baril, MDClinique médicale du Quartier Latin

CHUM

This activity is supported by

an educational grant from:


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

Received consultant, investigator or speaker honoraria/grants from the following companies

AbbVie

Bristol-Myers Squibb

GlaxoSmithKline

BoehringerIngelheim

Pfizer

Roche

Tibotec

Merck Frosst

Gilead

ANTIBODY Healthcare Communications received an unconditional grant from AbbVie Canada for the literature review

Disclosures

Dr. Jean-Guy Baril


Objectives

Objectives

  • Review the data from studies supporting the use of dual therapy on treatment-naive or experienced patients with an undetectable viral load.

  • Know the studies done with a protease inhibitor in combination with another single agent such as an integrase inhibitor, maraviroc, 3TC or an NNRTI.

  • Discuss the role of these options in clinical practice.


Denis case

Denis’ Case

  • Patient has never been treated for his HIV. Suffers from diabetes but is well controlled. He also has renal insufficiency.

  • Accepted to begin treatment because of a drop in his CD4 to 370 and a viral load of 150 000

  • Lab results:

    • Creatinine: 133; eGFR: 55; Urinalysis: N; MAU: 4.6 mg/mmol (N<2.1)

    • HLAB5701: Positive for genotype: no mutation.

    • HBsAG negative, anti-HBs positive, anti-HBc negative, anti-HCV negative


Which treatment to start with

Which treatment to start with?

  • 1) Atripla

  • 2) Truvada + PI/r

  • 3) Kivexa + Efavirenz

  • 4) Combivir + Efavirenz

  • 5) PI/r + Raltegravir

  • 6) PI/r + Efavirenz


The ongoing need for novel regimens

“A person starting combination therapy can expect to live about 43 years at 20 years of age…”

The Lancet, 20081

The ongoing need for novel regimens

As patients live longer on therapy…

new therapeutic options which lessen the impactof ARV therapy on their bodies are especially important.

  • What are the goals of NRTI-free therapy?2

  • Maintain efficacy

  • Prevent resistance

  • Reduce toxicities

  • Maintain and improve adherence

  • Reduce costs

  • (including the total cost of care)

  • The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. Lancet 2008;372:293-99;

  • 2. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services


Nrti sparing approach findings to date

Initial studies showed1…

higher rates of treatment failure

poorer tolerability (i.e. DMP-006; IDV+EFV)

Recent (2011) meta-analysis of 10 PI monotherapy trials showed2…

increase in the risk of virologic failure

decrease in viral suppression

NRTI-sparing approach:Findings to date

1. Staszewski, S., et al. Efavirenz plus Zidovudine and Lamivudine, Efavirenz plus Indinavir, and Indinavir plus Zidovudine and Lamivudine in the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 1999. 341(25): pp. 1865-1873.

2. Mathis, S., et al. Effectiveness of protease inhibitor monotherapy versus combination antiretroviral maintenance therapy: a meta-analysis.PLoS One, 2011. 6(7): p. e22003.0


Innovative strategies for hiv care

The working group:

Dr. S. Walmsley, ON (Co-chair)

Dr. J.G. Baril, QC (Co-chair)

Dr. C. Murphy, BC

Dr. J. Angel, ON

Dr. J. Gill, AB

Dr. G. Smith, ON

Sandra Blitz, ON

Innovative strategies for HIV care

What did the working group do?

Reviewed the current and available evidence on innovative dual therapies(PI/r + RAL or MVC or NNRTI or 3TC) for ARV-naïve and -experienced patients.


Methods

Literature search using PubMed was done from 2002 through February 2012

International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment and Prevention (WAC/IAS) 2009-2011 and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2009-2012 abstracts search

Additionally, an expert review committee consisting of HIV specialists reviewed and rated all identified trials and was queried around their knowledge of any other potentially relevant studies in existence, including those cited in the reference lists of identified studies

Methods


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

INCLUSION CRITERIA

randomized controlled or prospectively designed single-arm trials

minimum duration 24 weeks

naive or switch of virologically suppressed patients

primary outcome of suppression of viral load, change in viral load or virologic failure was acceptable

other virologic outcomes were acceptable as a primary endpoint, if they were supplemented by secondary endpoints which looked at the above criteria

secondary outcome data were included if available (toxicities and-or co-morbidities outcome)

considered acceptable: pilot/proof-of-concept studies, abstracts.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA

Case reports, reviews, correspondences and research letters

Phase I trials, laboratory studies , pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies, retrospective or included patients who were ARV-experienced but not suppressed or were pediatric, pregnancy/pMTCT or co-infection studies

Trial selection


Nrti sparing trials arv na ve and experienced patients

NRTI-sparing trials:ARV-naïve and – experienced patients


Progress lpv r ral vs lpv r tdf ftc in arv na ve patients

LPV/r 400/100 mg BID

+ RAL 400 mg BID (n=101)

Week 48

Primary

Efficacy

Endpoint

Screening

Week 96

LPV/r 400/100 mg BID

+ TDF/FTC 300/200 mg QD

(n=105)

PROGRESS:LPV/r + RAL vs. LPV/r + TDF/FTC in ARV-naïve patients

  • Met Primary Endpoint of Non-inferiority

  • Primary endpoint: plasma HIV-1 RNA <40 copies/mL at week 48 (FDA-TLOVR)

  • LPV/r + RAL=83.2%,

  • LPV/r + TDF/FTC=84.8% Difference -1.6%, 95% exact confidence interval (CI) -12.0%, 8.8%; P=0.850,

  • Safety and tolerability were similar at week 48

* 3 subjects were randomized but not dosed

Reynes J, Trinh R, Pulido F, et al. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) combined with raltegravir (RAL) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in antiretroviral-naive subjects: 96-week results of the PROGRESS study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;[epub ahead of print].


Progress week 96 tlovr

PROGRESS:Week 96 (TLOVR)

(88.9% obs)

(85.2% obs)

RAL-TDF/FTC= 3.7% (95% CI: -7.5%, 14.3%) obs

Reynes J, Trinh R, Pulido F, et al. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) combined with raltegravir (RAL) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in antiretroviral-naive subjects: 96-week results of the PROGRESS study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;[epub ahead of print].


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

PROGRESS:Mean percent change from baseline to weeks 48 and 96 in body fat parameters

LPV/r + RAL and LPV/r + TDF/FTC groups were compared using one-way ANOVA

Reynes J, Trinh R, Pulido F, et al. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) combined with raltegravir (RAL) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in antiretroviral-naive subjects: 96-week results of the PROGRESS study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;[epub ahead of print].


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

PROGRESS:Mean percent change in bone mineral density analyzed using DXA through 96 weeks of treatment

van Wyk J. Body fat distribution changes after 96 weeks of therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus raltegravir (RAL) compared with LPV/r plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in antiretroviral (ARV)-naive, HIV-1-infected subjects from the PROGRESS study. Presented at: 13th European AIDS Conference; October 12-14, 2011; Belgrade, Serbia.


Proportion of subjects with 5 decrease from baseline in total bone mineral density

Proportion of Subjects with ≥5% Decrease from Baseline in Total Bone Mineral Density

PROGRESS Bone Mineral Density

July 14, 2011


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

BabafemiTaiwo et al. , Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL, US

Presented as poster no 551at CROI

Year 2011

Results from a Single Arm Study of Darunavir/Ritonavir Plus Raltegravir inTreatment-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Patients (ACTG A5262)

ACTG A5262


Actg 5262 aims method and design

Aim

To assess the efficacy and safety of DRV/r plus RAL in antiretroviral-naïve subjects

Methods and design

A multicentre, single arm, open label, 52-week pilot study of RAL 400mg BID plus DRV/r 800mg/100mg QD

ACTG 5262 Aims, method and design


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

Author, R. Bedimo et al. VA North Texas Health Care System, Medicine, Dallas, United States

Presented as poster no MOPE214 at the 6th IAS conference, Rome

Year 2011

RADAR study: Raltegravir combined with boosted Darunavir has similar safety and antiviral efficacy astenofovir/emtricitabine combined with boosted darunavir in antiretroviral-naive patients


Radar study

Radar study


Radar study 24 weeks key findings

RADAR study, 24 weeks : Key Findings

Working Group on Innovative Strategies for HIV Care, 2012.


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

The SPARTAN study: a pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of an investigational NRTI- and RTV-sparing regimen of atazanavir (ATV) experimental dose of 300mg BID plus raltegravir (RAL) 400mg BID (ATV+RAL) in treatment-naïve HIV-infected subjects

  • M.J. Kozal et al. Yale University School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare System, New Haven, United States

  • Presented as LB no : THLBB204 at the XVIIIth IAC conference, Vienna

  • Year 2010

The SPARTAN study


Atazanavir r tdf ftc or maraviroc in treatment na ve patients study a4001078

Randomization

1 : 1N = 121

FTC/TDF + ATV/r (300/100 mg QD)

MVC (150 mg QD) + ATV/r (300/100 mg QD)

0

48wk

Screening(6 weeks)

16wk

24wk

96wk

Primary

Endpoint

Atazanavir/r + TDF/FTC or Maraviroc in Treatment-naïve Patients (Study A4001078)

Open-label, 96-week Phase 2b Pilot Study

  • Primary Patient Eligibility Criteria:

    • R5 HIV at screening

    • HIV-1 RNA ≥1,000 copies/mL

    • CD4 ≥100 cells/mm3

    • No evidence of resistance to ATV/r, TDF, or FTC

Mills T, et al, 19th IAC; Washington, DC; July 22-27, 2012; Abst. TUAB0102.


A4001078 virologic outcomes

A4001078: Virologic Outcomes

82.0%

67.8%

ITT, NC=F

  • MVC arm: 6/8 with detectable viremia at week 96 had VL <250 cps/mL

  • No genotypic, phenotypic resistance or tropism changes detected in any failing subjects

Mills T, et al, 19th IAC; Washington, DC; July 22-27, 2012; Abst. TUAB0102.


A4001078 adverse events and safety

A4001078: Adverse Events and Safety

  • Mean change in creatinine clearance from baseline to week 96:

    • MVC + ATV/r = ↓1.5 mL/min

    • TDF/FTC + ATV/r = ↓21.5 mL/min

Mills T, et al, 19th IAC; Washington, DC; July 22-27, 2012; Abst. TUAB0102.


Nrti sparing trials arv na ve and experienced patients1

NRTI-sparing trials:ARV-naïve and – experienced patients


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

PRESENTED AT CROI 2013

LPV/r 400/100 mg BID + 2-3 NRTIs QD or BID(n = 271)

LPV/r 400/100 mg BID +RAL 400 mg BID(n = 270)

SECOND LINE:LPV/r +RAL vs. LPV/r + NRTIs after first-line virologic failure

Wk 48 primary endpoint

Stratified by clinical site, baseline HIV-1 RNA

(≤ or > 100,000 copies/mL)

HIV-infected pts with virologic failure on first-line regimen of 2 NRTIs + NNRTI

(N = 541)

Humphries A, et al. CROI 2013. Abstract 180LB.


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

Design:

Randomized, open-label study conducted at 38 sites in 15 countries

Subjects:541 HIV-1 positive adults (≥16 years) with virologic failure with first-line ART (NNRTI + 2N(t)RTIs) for ≥24 weeks

Treatment arms (1:1 randomization):

LPV/r + 2-2 N(t)RTIs (control)

LPV/r + RAL [N(t)RTI-sparing]

Primary objective:

Comparison of the antiviral efficacy of second-line ART regimens (% with plasma HIV RNA <200 copies/mL after 48 weeks)

0

Similar high levels of virologic suppression with each strategy in primary mITT analysis

PRESENTED AT CROI 2013

36

24

0

12

100

82.6

80

80.8

P = .59

60

HIV-1 RNA < 200 c/mL (%)

40

LPV/RTV + RAL

LPV/RTV + 2-3 NRTIs

20

48

Wk

SECOND LINE:Non-inferiority of LPV/r + RAL vs. LPV/r + NRTIs

Humphries A, et al. CROI 2013. Abstract 180LB. Graphic used with permission.

Zheng Y, et al. CROI 2013. Abstract 558.


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

PRESENTED AT CROI 2013

ROCnRAL ANRS 157:Switch to MVC+RAL in lipodystrophic patients with suppressed viral load

Switched from suppressive HAART

24 weeks

Primary

endpoint

Key inclusion criteria:

HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL

CD4 cell count nadir >100 cells/mm3

Clinical lipodystrophy

RAL 400 mg BID + MVC 300 mg BID(n=44)

48 weeks

Primary endpoint

Proportion of patients with treatment failure at week 24 (ITT)

(Defined as either virological failure with 2 consecutive plasma HIV RNA >50 copies/mL or treatment discontinuation)

CROI 2013, Abstract #566


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

PRESENTED AT CROI 2013

ROCnRAL ANRS 157:Switch to MVC+RAL in lipodystrophic patients with suppressed viral load

  • 7 patients discontinued therapy

  • 5 had virologic failure; 3 due to adverse events

  • 3/5 failures had resistance to RAL (A. F121Y, Y143C, N155H

  • Premature discontinuation of study advised by DSMB

CROI 2013, Abstract #566


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

Maraviroc + Raltegravir Dual Therapy in Aviremic HIV+Patients with Lipodystrophy: Virologic Failures and Resistance

Katlama C, et al. Presented at CROI 2013; poster #566.


Innovative strategies for the management of hiv infection

Maraviroc + Raltegravir Dual Therapy in Aviremic HIV+Patients with Lipodystrophy: Serious AEs Leading to Discontinuation

Katlama C, et al. Presented at CROI 2013; poster #566.


Ongoing studies

Ongoing Studies

  • ANRS 143 Study:

    • Study to determine whether the combination regimen of DRV/r and RAL is not inferior to the combination therapy involving the DRV/r and TDF-FTC combination in 800 adults infected with HIV-1 without a history of ARV treatment, for at least 96 weeks.

  • MODERN Study:

    • Phase III study (A4001095) comparing a CCR5 antagonist (maraviroc) with the combination regimen TDF-FTC (Truvada®) both taken in combination with DRV/r for 96 weeks, in 804 patients.

  • LPV/r and lamivudine (3TC):

    • Comparison of the tolerability and efficacy of LPV/r taken with 3TC and LPV taken with two NRTIs in 407 subjects with no history of ARV treatment for 96 weeks.

  • HARNESS Study

    • Phase IV study comparing the switch from a treatment with atazanavir 300 mg/ritonavir 100 mg QD combined with either raltegravir BID or tenofovir/emtricitabine QD in patients with an undetectable viral load under tri-therapy (120 patients).


Ongoing studies of pi based nrti sparing regimens

2013

2014

TOTAL

STUDY

N

STUDY

N

N

ONGOING STUDIES OF PI-BASED NRTI-SPARING REGIMENS

EARNEST

(treatment failure)

SELECT

(treatment failure)

LPV/r + RAL

750

400

350

GARDEL(ARV-naïve)

OLE

(simplification)

LPV/r + 3TC

372

205

168

NEAT001

(ARV-naïve)

DRV/r + RAL

400

400

MODERN

(ARV-naïve)

DRV/r + MVC

402

402

GUSTA

(Switch)

165

165

PK

15

15

INROADSPhase 2

(treatment failure)

DRV + ETV

54

54

HARNESS

(Switch)

N= dual therapy arm

ATV + RAL

60

60


Conclusions

Despite the numerous available ARV combinations, no treatment regimen is free of adverse effects.

Most PLHIV are now treated and will be so for most of their lives. The following should be taken into consideration:

Long-term toxicities

Existing co-morbidities

Cross toxicities

Drug interactions

Treatments should be individualized to take each patient’s circumstances into account. There is a need for NRTI-sparing treatments:

Patients who are intolerant of NRTIs

Resistance to NRTIs

Co-morbidities exacerbated by NRTIs

Studies are underway of PI/r combinations with raltegravir, maraviroc and 3TC and will be able to better support this practice in the future. For now, the preliminary results show that not all of these combinations are equivalent.

CONCLUSIONS


Acknowledgements

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Working Group on Innovative Strategies for HIV Care


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