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Endocrine System. Chapter 10. Regulating Body Function. Working closely with your nervous system is the endocrine system, a chemical communication system that regulate many body functions. . Exocrine vs Endocrine. Exocrine Glands. Endocrine.

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Endocrine system

Endocrine System

Chapter 10


Regulating body function
Regulating Body Function

  • Working closely with your nervous system is theendocrine system, a chemical communication system that regulate many body functions.


Exocrine vs endocrine
Exocrine vs Endocrine

Exocrine Glands

Endocrine

  • secrete their products into ducts that empty onto a surface or into a cavity.

  • Ex: Sweat glands and salivary glands

  • Ductless glands.

  • They secrete chemicals (hormones) into intracellular spaces.

not


Regulating body function1
Regulating Body Function

  • A gland is a group of cells, or an organ, that secretes a chemical substance.

  • The endocrine glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

  • The blood carries the hormones directly to the tissue they are targeted to affect.

  • Some hormones are produced continuously, while others are produced only at certain times.


Regulation of hormone secretion
Regulation of Hormone Secretion

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

  • Homeostatic control mechanism that reverses what is happening in the body

  • More common than positive feedback.

    • Ex: Insulin, Body Temperature, Blood Pressure

  • Amplifies changes rather than reverses them.

    • Ex: Labor – amplified contractions.


Mechanisms of hormone action
Mechanisms of Hormone Action

Nonsteroid Hormones

Steroid Hormones

  • Second messenger mechanism: nonsteroid hormones serve as 1st messenger between gland and cells; Another molecule will then act as a 2nd messenger providing communication within the target cell

  • Lipid-soluble

  • Can pass through cell membrane of target cell

  • Bind with receptors on the nucleus and act on DNA


Meet the glands
Meet the Glands

Endocrine System


Pituitary
Pituitary

  • The pituitary gland at the base of the brain is a gland that signals other endocrine glands to produce hormones when needed.

  • It is also known as the “Master Gland” and is located at the base of the brain.

  • It secretes several hormones.

  • These regulate the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and kidneys- plus your growth and development. It produces growth hormones.


Pituitary1
Pituitary

Anterior

Posterior

  • TSH

    • Thyroid stimulating

  • ACTH

    • Adrenocorticotropic

  • FSH

    • Follicle-stimulating

  • LH

    • luteinizing

  • GH

    • growth

  • Prolactin

  • ADH

    • Anti-duretic

  • Oxytocin


Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus

  • The hypothalamus is a vital neuroendocrine and autonomic control center beneath the thalamus.

  • Secretes:

    • Releasing hormones

      • Anterior pituitary

    • Inhibiting hormones

      • Posterior pituitary


Parathyroid
Parathyroid

  • The parathyroid glands direct the distribution of certain minerals in your body.

  • Increase Ca+ in blood

  • Secretes

    • Parathyroid hormone or PTH


Pancreas
Pancreas

  • The pancreas is part of two body systems- the digestive system and the endocrine system.

  • It is located behind the stomach and supplies the small intestine with digestive juice.

  • It produces insulin and contains small clusters of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which control blood sugar levels.

  • It produces insulin.



Thymus
Thymus

  • The thymus gland is located in the mediastinum.

  • It is a vital part of the body’s immune system.

  • Produces thymosin


Pineal gland
Pineal Gland

  • The pineal gland is located in the third ventricle of the brain.

  • It produces melantonin.


Thyroid
Thyroid

  • The thyroid gland is located where the larynx and trachea meet.

  • It regulates the chemical reactions of nutrients in the cells.

  • It produces thyroxine.


Adrenal
Adrenal

  • The adrenal glands are located on your kidneys.

  • They secrete hormones that help the body maintain its levels of sodium and water, aid the digestive process, and control your body’s response to emergencies.

  • It produces adrenaline.



The body s response to stress
The Body’s Response to Stress

  • When your brain recognizes a stressful situation, your adrenal glands responds by releasing the hormone adrenaline. This hormone prepares your body to respond to stress.


Reproductive
Reproductive

  • During adolescence, the endocrine system plays an important role in growth and development.


Ovaries
Ovaries

  • The ovaries are the female reproductive glands.

  • They control the development of secondary sex characteristics during adolescence.

  • It produces estrogen.


Placenta
Placenta

  • The placenta anchors the developing fetus to the uterus and provides a “bridge” for the the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and the developing baby.


Testes
Testes

  • The testes are the male reproductive glands.

  • They control the development of secondary sex characteristics during adolescence.

  • It produces testosterone.


Problems or abnormalities
Problems or Abnormalities

Endocrine System


Secretions of hormones
Secretions of Hormones

Hyposecretion

Hypersecretion

  • Production of too little hormone by a diseased gland

  • Production of too much hormone by a diseased gland


Diabetes
Diabetes

  • Diabetes mellitus is a disease that may be caused by inadequate insulin production by the pancreas.

  • Symptoms include:

    • lack of energy

    • weight loss

    • extreme thirst

    • frequent urination


Thyroid1
THYROID

HYPOTHRYOIDISM

HYPERTHYROIDISM

  • Underactive thyroid gland can cause a dull facial expression, hoarse voice, facial puffiness, coarse, dry skin and hair, and weight gain.

  • Goiter- caused by low dietary iodine intake

  • Cretinsim- when hyposecretion occurs in infants/toddlers

  • Overactive thyroid gland produces symptoms that may include protrusion of eyeballs, warm, moist skin, trembling hands, nervousness, increased sweating, disturbed sleep, and weight loss.


Growth hormone
Growth Hormone

hyposecretion

hypersecretion

  • Dwarfisim

  • Gigantism

  • Acromegaly results when GH is secreted too much after adolescents.


Parathyroid1
Parathyroid

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D help manage calcium balance in the body

  • Calcium is important to many body functions, including:

    • Bone formation

    • Hormone release

    • Muscle contraction

    • Nerve and brain function



Parathyroid2
Parathyroid

hypersecretion

hyposecretion

  • Results inhypercalcemia

  • Causes several abdominal, muscle, kidney and psychological symptoms

  • Results in hypocalcemia

  • Symptoms include:

    • Petechiae (red spots on skin)

    • Strong muscle contractions of the hand (cramping)

    • Life threatening

    • ECG changes


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