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Endocrine System. Chapter 10. Regulating Body Function. Working closely with your nervous system is the endocrine system, a chemical communication system that regulate many body functions. . Exocrine vs Endocrine. Exocrine Glands. Endocrine.

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regulating body function
Regulating Body Function
  • Working closely with your nervous system is theendocrine system, a chemical communication system that regulate many body functions.
exocrine vs endocrine
Exocrine vs Endocrine

Exocrine Glands


  • secrete their products into ducts that empty onto a surface or into a cavity.
  • Ex: Sweat glands and salivary glands
  • Ductless glands.
  • They secrete chemicals (hormones) into intracellular spaces.


regulating body function1
Regulating Body Function
  • A gland is a group of cells, or an organ, that secretes a chemical substance.
  • The endocrine glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
  • The blood carries the hormones directly to the tissue they are targeted to affect.
  • Some hormones are produced continuously, while others are produced only at certain times.
regulation of hormone secretion
Regulation of Hormone Secretion

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

  • Homeostatic control mechanism that reverses what is happening in the body
  • More common than positive feedback.
    • Ex: Insulin, Body Temperature, Blood Pressure
  • Amplifies changes rather than reverses them.
    • Ex: Labor – amplified contractions.
mechanisms of hormone action
Mechanisms of Hormone Action

Nonsteroid Hormones

Steroid Hormones

  • Second messenger mechanism: nonsteroid hormones serve as 1st messenger between gland and cells; Another molecule will then act as a 2nd messenger providing communication within the target cell
  • Lipid-soluble
  • Can pass through cell membrane of target cell
  • Bind with receptors on the nucleus and act on DNA
meet the glands
Meet the Glands

Endocrine System

  • The pituitary gland at the base of the brain is a gland that signals other endocrine glands to produce hormones when needed.
  • It is also known as the “Master Gland” and is located at the base of the brain.
  • It secretes several hormones.
  • These regulate the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and kidneys- plus your growth and development. It produces growth hormones.



  • TSH
    • Thyroid stimulating
  • ACTH
    • Adrenocorticotropic
  • FSH
    • Follicle-stimulating
  • LH
    • luteinizing
  • GH
    • growth
  • Prolactin
  • ADH
    • Anti-duretic
  • Oxytocin
  • The hypothalamus is a vital neuroendocrine and autonomic control center beneath the thalamus.
  • Secretes:
    • Releasing hormones
      • Anterior pituitary
    • Inhibiting hormones
      • Posterior pituitary
  • The parathyroid glands direct the distribution of certain minerals in your body.
  • Increase Ca+ in blood
  • Secretes
    • Parathyroid hormone or PTH
  • The pancreas is part of two body systems- the digestive system and the endocrine system.
  • It is located behind the stomach and supplies the small intestine with digestive juice.
  • It produces insulin and contains small clusters of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which control blood sugar levels.
  • It produces insulin.
  • The thymus gland is located in the mediastinum.
  • It is a vital part of the body’s immune system.
  • Produces thymosin
pineal gland
Pineal Gland
  • The pineal gland is located in the third ventricle of the brain.
  • It produces melantonin.
  • The thyroid gland is located where the larynx and trachea meet.
  • It regulates the chemical reactions of nutrients in the cells.
  • It produces thyroxine.
  • The adrenal glands are located on your kidneys.
  • They secrete hormones that help the body maintain its levels of sodium and water, aid the digestive process, and control your body’s response to emergencies.
  • It produces adrenaline.
the body s response to stress
The Body’s Response to Stress
  • When your brain recognizes a stressful situation, your adrenal glands responds by releasing the hormone adrenaline. This hormone prepares your body to respond to stress.
  • During adolescence, the endocrine system plays an important role in growth and development.
  • The ovaries are the female reproductive glands.
  • They control the development of secondary sex characteristics during adolescence.
  • It produces estrogen.
  • The placenta anchors the developing fetus to the uterus and provides a “bridge” for the the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and the developing baby.
  • The testes are the male reproductive glands.
  • They control the development of secondary sex characteristics during adolescence.
  • It produces testosterone.
secretions of hormones
Secretions of Hormones



  • Production of too little hormone by a diseased gland
  • Production of too much hormone by a diseased gland
  • Diabetes mellitus is a disease that may be caused by inadequate insulin production by the pancreas.
  • Symptoms include:
    • lack of energy
    • weight loss
    • extreme thirst
    • frequent urination



  • Underactive thyroid gland can cause a dull facial expression, hoarse voice, facial puffiness, coarse, dry skin and hair, and weight gain.
  • Goiter- caused by low dietary iodine intake
  • Cretinsim- when hyposecretion occurs in infants/toddlers
  • Overactive thyroid gland produces symptoms that may include protrusion of eyeballs, warm, moist skin, trembling hands, nervousness, increased sweating, disturbed sleep, and weight loss.
growth hormone
Growth Hormone



  • Dwarfisim
  • Gigantism
  • Acromegaly results when GH is secreted too much after adolescents.
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D help manage calcium balance in the body
  • Calcium is important to many body functions, including:
    • Bone formation
    • Hormone release
    • Muscle contraction
    • Nerve and brain function



  • Results inhypercalcemia
  • Causes several abdominal, muscle, kidney and psychological symptoms
  • Results in hypocalcemia
  • Symptoms include:
    • Petechiae (red spots on skin)
    • Strong muscle contractions of the hand (cramping)
    • Life threatening
    • ECG changes