Logical fallacies and 4 common modes of writing
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Logical fallacies and 4 common modes of writing. American Literature EOCT Review. Logical fallacies are…. Illogical arguments Used to persuade listeners/consumers to feel a certain way or do something Comprised of over exaggerations, scare tactics, and/or emotional appeals

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Logical fallacies and 4 common modes of writing

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Logical fallacies and 4 common modes of writing

Logical fallacies and 4 common modes of writing

American Literature EOCT Review


Logical fallacies are

Logical fallacies are…

  • Illogical arguments

  • Used to persuade listeners/consumers to feel a certain way or do something

  • Comprised of over exaggerations, scare tactics, and/or emotional appeals

  • A way advertisers can try to manipulate consumers


What is a logical fallacy

What is a logical fallacy?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ytWGiOuzpe4


Why should we know about them

Why should we know about them?

  • They are EVERYWHERE: in tv and radio commercials, print ads, television shows, movies, political speeches and ads

  • They have been used for centuries: everything from speeches in Julius Caesar to ads from the 1800’s to commercials today

  • We can avoid logical fallacies in our own writing and detect them in the writing of others

  • Knowledge of logical fallacies empowers us to be educated consumers in society.


Faulty reasoning

Faulty reasoning

  • Circular reasoning: Trying to prove a statement by repeating it in different words

    • “Antibiotics are being overused because people take them too often.”

  • Cause-and-effect fallacy: Falsely assuming that because one event follows another, the first event caused the second:

    • “If we don’t make laws limiting tattoos, there will be more and more gang members.


Faulty reasoning1

Faulty reasoning

  • Either-or fallacy: Stating that there are only two alternatives when there are many

    • “If we don’t set limits on prescribing antibiotics, we will face worldwide epidemics caused by untreatable super microbes.”

  • Bandwagon: Everyone else is doing it so why not you?

    • “Millions of people have switched to [insert brand name here].”


Types of logical fallacies

Types of logical fallacies

  • Testimonial: Using a “true” story to convince the reader.

    • “If it could happen to me…”

  • Card stacking: Only positive information is presented, without any contradictory or negative information.

    • Nicotine has been shown to lower incidences of Alzheimer’s disease, can boost the growth of new blood vessels, and may even reduce depression.


Faulty reasoning2

Faulty reasoning

  • Stereotyping: creates a simplified picture of a complex situation, individual, or group.

  • Rhetorical questions: Asks questions for which no answer is needed, to try to force the reader/listener to agree.

    • “Are you tired of trash bags that rip and tear?”


Examples

Examples

  • Cause-and-effect

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owGykVbfgUE&feature=relmfu

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2SEGbRy5mIw&feature=autoplay&list=PLA88D7CD8A8A54AEA&index=4&playnext=3


Examples1

Examples

  • Either/or, bandwagon

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2y_GwKzxck

  • Bandwagon

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvCTaccEkMI

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02vku-6fZWQ


Examples2

Examples

  • Cause-effect

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ge8aZqgxV7Q&NR=1

  • Testimonial, beautiful people

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLPltgIhZrI

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZ1_CQD1jS8


Examples3

Examples

  • Card stacking

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiWTcVHdSFo

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tl22YOOCreE

    Stereotyping

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XCA_d5qEF1k

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L72rATeYN98


Examples4

Examples

  • Rhetorical questions

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXHUdvvHTkw

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ide9dgoZkk


Four common types of writing

Four common types of writing

  • Narration: tells a story (fiction or nonfiction), usually has a plot, climax, and resolution

  • Descriptive: describes a person, place, or setting

  • Persuasion: attempts to influence the readers thoughts (here’s where logical fallacies come in)

  • Exposition: explains something (like an encyclopedia article)


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