High speed addition with bipolar digital circuits
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High-speed Addition with Bipolar Digital Circuits. Matthew W. Ernest Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Carry types: Carry Select. Compute possible results in parallel Select when actual carry-in available Requires internal carry for blocks, e.g. ripple Delay: O(f(n/b) +b)

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High-speed Addition with Bipolar Digital Circuits

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High-speed Addition with Bipolar Digital Circuits

Matthew W. Ernest

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


Carry types: Carry Select

  • Compute possible results in parallel

  • Select when actual carry-in available

  • Requires internal carry for blocks, e.g. ripple

  • Delay: O(f(n/b) +b)

  • Area: O(f(n/b)·b+b)

  • Affected by block sizing

1

1

0

0


Carry Select Delay Path

  • t=0..4: Each block operates in parallel

  • t=5: Carry-out of first block selected by carry-in, no activity in second block

  • t=6: Carry-out of second block selected by carry-out of first

1

b7…b4

0

1

b7…b4

0

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

t


Lengthening non-critical paths

  • t=0..4: Each block operates in parallel

  • t=5: Carry-out of first block selected by carry-in, additional bit handled during delay

  • t=6: Carry-out of lengthened second block selected by carry-out of first

1

b8…b4

0

1

b7…b4

0

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

t


Carry Select Delay

  • td: delay of circuit

  • tg: delay of gate

  • tm: delay of mux

  • N: # of stages

  • ci: bits in stage i

Given:td = tg· ci + N · tm

If:tg· ci+1£ tg· ci + tm

Define:s = ci+1 - ci£ tm / tg


Minimizing delay via stage size

td / tg = éÖ2 B s + s/2ù

N =étd / tg - s/2 ± Ö(td / tg - s/2)2 - 2 B sù

s

c1 =td / tg- Ns


Carry Types: Block carry look-ahead

  • A block propagates a carry if all bits in the block propagate a carry

  • A block generates a carry if a bit generates a carry and all succeeding bits propagate

  • Delay: O(log n)

  • Area: O(n log n)


Carry vs. Pseudocarry

Cout=Gn+ Pn• Gn-1 +…+Pn• Pn-1• ... P0• Cin

If G=A•B

and P=A+B

then

G=G•P

Cout= Pn•Gn+ Pn• Gn-1 +…+Pn• Pn-1• ... P0• Cin

Cout= Pn(Gn+ Gn-1 +…+Pn-1• ... P0• Cin)

Cout= Pn•Hn

Hn =Gn+ Gn-1 +…+Pn-1• ... P0• Cin


Deriving Block Pseudocarry from Carry Lookahead Terms

Block Generate:

Gi•j0= Gij + PijGij-1i + … + PijPij-1iPij-2i•••Gi0

If G=A•B

and P=A+B

then

G=G•P

Gi•j0= PijGij + PijGij-1i + … + PijPij-1iPij-2i•••Gi0

Gi•j0= Pij(Gij + Gij-1i + … + Pij-1iPij-2i•••Gi0)

Hi•j0= Gij + Gij-1i + … + Pij-1iPij-2i•••Gi0


Generalized Pseudocarry Equations

H2s= G1s+1 + G1s

Hi+js= Hjs+i + Ijs+i-1•His

Hi+j+ks= Hks+I+j + Iks+I+j-1•Hjs+i + Iks+I+j-1• Ijs+i-1•His

Ip+qt= Iqt+p•Ipt

Ip+q+rt= Irt+q+p•Iqt+p•Ipt


Generating Sums Using Pseudocarry

Sn=AnÅBnÅCn-1

If

Tn=AnÅBn

Cm= Pm•Hm

then

Sn=TnÅPn-1Hn-1


Pseudocarry Blocks

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H2s

H6s

H6s

H6s

H6s

H6s

H18s

H14s

H32s


CML/ECL Current Steering Gates


  • Any function of inputs

  • Fan-in limited by supply voltage

  • Limited to simple functions

  • Large fan-in

Single-ended vs. Double-ended


Look-ahead gate w/ fully differential logic

Hn-2

Hn-2

Hn-1

Hn-1

In-1

In-1

In

In

Hn-1

Hn-1

Hn

Hn

In

In

Hn

Hn


Hn

Hn-1

Vr

Hn

Vr

In

In

Mixed input look-ahead gates

  • In(Hn+ Hn-1) + In•Hn

  • Hn+ In•Hn-1

  • Two series-gated levels for three inputs


Hn

Hn-1

Hn

Hn-2

Hn-1

Hn

In-1

In-1

In

In

Mixed input look-ahead gates

  • In In-1(Hn+ Hn-1 + Hn-2) + In In-1(Hn+ Hn-1) + In• In-1• Hn

  • Hn+ In•Hn-1 + In• In-1• Hn-2

  • Three series-gated levels for five inputs


Adder comparision

CSel

PCLA

Ripple

CLA

Bits

C

B

A

32

32

12

12

9

6

5

64

64

20

16

12

7

6


Pseudocarry Tree Oscillator

Select

0

1

31

32

1

B

A

Cin

Cout


2 x 165 ps

Carry Tree High-speed Output


Comparisons of Published Adders


Minimize/Balance Wiring Length

Cartesian Alignment


Minimize/Balance Wire Length

Isometric Alignment


Cascode Output Stage

  • Eliminates capacitive coupling between input and output

  • Shortens rise time, but increases delay


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