Adult Education/Training Program. Learning Theories Presentation. Cognitive and Behavioral.
While the underlying theory of cognitive behavioral management is related to social learning theory, there are many theoretical constructs which concern us in delineating a full understanding of how it is used. While it is relatively easy to suggest that thought controls behavior, meaning of course, that if you believe that you are superman, you will try to fly, this simple construct is not easy. It requires much more, because in many senses it is self reflective. Not only do we need to help people with problems in living learn to attend to their internal dialogue as a means to making choices about change, but we must understand that as theorists and clinicians, we must also attend and make choices. The simple becomes difficult when we attempt to break through our own belief systems and deal with the dichotomies of our own internal realities and those of a broader world perspective. In order to help you examine these issues we include short papers on a variety of subjects.
Maslow\'s hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance. It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the lowest level is associated with physiological needs, while the uppermost level is associated with self-actualization needs, particularly those related to identity and purpose.
The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, and esteem. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense.
For the most part, physiological needs are obvious - they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing and sex, the human body simply cannot continue to function.
Physiological needs include:
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual\'s safety needs take over and dominate their behavior.
Safety and Security needs include:
Health and well-being
Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social.
Having a supportive and communicative family
All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect.
The motivation to realize one\'s own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms.
Near the end of his life Maslow revealed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization: self-transcendence.
While Maslow\'s theory was regarded as an improvement over previous theories of personality and motivation, it had its detractors. For example, in their extensive review of research which is dependent on Maslow\'s theory, Wahba and Bridgewell found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all.
The Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model, more commonly known as the Kemp Model defines different elements – not “step, stage, level, or sequential item” (Morrison, Ross & Kemp 2004, p.10) of an instructional design, and emphasizes the adoption of continuous implementation and evaluation through the instructional design process.
The Morrison-Ross-Kemp model has three characteristics that differentiate it from some other models:
One of the most frequently asked questions about models is how one should properly use them. How prescriptive are the sequence of steps and the procedures given for any model? The answer, of course, is \'it depends.\' One of the major dimensions tends to be the experience and confidence of the instructional designer. Novice designers tend to like the support and reassurance that a model provides to them, and they tend to use them more than an experienced designer would. On the other hand, while an experienced designer may not use a model for immediate reference the way a novice might, experienced designers may be found comparing models to find ones which suggest improved ways of doing things to them, or better ways of explaining the process to their clients and team members. Models and their associated descriptions can continue to provide good references to experienced designers and, as stated above, an invaluable resource for communication and project management with their team members.
According to Morrison et al, there are nine key elements to instructional design:
Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
State instructional objectives for the learner.
Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.
Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
Plan the instructional message and delivery.
Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.
These elements are independent of each other, in that they do not need to be considered in a linear fashion and there is no particular start- and end point.
The model is systemic and nonlinear; it encourages designers to work in all areas of ID as appropriate. The use of ovals emphasizes this flexibility visually; the graphical design communicates a continuous non-linear cycle that requires iterative planning, design, development and assessment. The inner oval (surrounding the core) illustrates that revision/formative evaluation activities can be undertaken at each stage of the development process, something that is not always built into other models, usually because of the constraints of time and money.
The outer oval includes a typical post-instruction activity (summative evaluation) and also highlights three elements usually absent from other models – namely project planning, project management, and support services. The latter are required both for the project itself while it is in development, and afterwards to support the actual instruction.
We can say that it describes a holistic approach to instructional design that considers all factors in the environment; the starting point and order in which the designer addresses them is not prescribed, though the elements in the model may form a logical design sequence when read anti-clockwise .
Because of the lack of connectivity between elements and the facility for IDs to start at any place within the model, a designer can examine the entire scope of a project - or just as effectively work on a single learning object or lesson. Using this classroom-oriented model, an individual with little instructional design skill can develop a piece of instruction using few or no additional resources and with minimal front-end analysis. Similarly, there is no requirement to conduct formative and summative evaluation on the final materials. A more experienced designer can also use this model in the design of a complex and widely-distributed learning program.
Behaviorism and cognitivism are two popular methods used by instructional designers, they both have different approaches and they are both wisely used . Basically both methods can be used interchangeably with each other and they have been proven to be quite successful.