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Fermentation of Meat Products. Animal Science 550 Lynn Knipe Ohio State University. Fermentation of Meat Products, Based Upon:. microbes using carbohydrates as energy source. floral inversion inhibits Gram - organisms. pH reduced from 6.0 to 5.0.

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fermentation of meat products

Fermentation of Meat Products

Animal Science 550

Lynn Knipe

Ohio State University

fermentation of meat products based upon
Fermentation of Meat Products, Based Upon:
  • microbes using carbohydrates as energy source.
  • floral inversion inhibits Gram- organisms.
  • pH reduced from 6.0 to 5.0.
m o s using carbohydrates as energy source
M.O.’s Using Carbohydrates as Energy Source
  • Carbohydrates fermented before attacking protein & fat.
  • Low fat ground beef containing starch.
floral inversion inhibits gram negative organisms
Floral Inversion Inhibits Gram Negative Organisms
  • Fresh meat: Gram negative organisms.
  • 2-3.5% salt, plus nitrite causes floral inversion.
ph reduced from 6 0 to 5 0
pH Reduced from 6.0 to 5.0
  • Controls microbial growth.
  • Decreases water- holding capacity.
  • Faster drying at iso- electric point (pI, 5.1- 5.3).
backslop method
“Backslop” Method
  • “Wild” inoculation favored growth of lactics
  • Unique flavors
  • Lactobacilli(heterofermentive)
      • decarboxylation (tyr to tyramine)
      • CO2 & H202
  • Staph (coagulase positive)
commercial cultures
Commercial Cultures
  • 1958 - first starter cultures available to meat industry
  • Characteristics:
      • Facultative anaerobes
      • Tolerant of 2-3% salt
      • Favor lactic acid production
      • Rapid fermentation to inhibit Staph.
commercial cultures8
Commercial Cultures
  • Developed for 4 functions:
      • acidity
      • flavor
      • color
      • texture
usda approved organisms for meat
USDA-Approved Organisms for Meat
  • Pediococcus
  • Lactobacillus plantarium
  • Micrococcus
  • not coagulase negative Staph.
pediococcus
Pediococcus
  • best for temperature >90ºF
  • short lag phase
  • homofermentative - produce only lactic acid
  • e.g., Lactacel:
      • P. cervisiae, P. acidilactici, and P. pentosaceus
lactobacillus plantarium
Lactobacillus plantarium
  • better for 60-90ºF (common for dry sausage)
  • other L. species are heterofermentative
      • produce CO2 & H202
micrococcus
Micrococcus
  • reduces nitrates & nitrites to nitric oxide
  • reduces H202
  • M. varians
commercial procedures
Commercial Procedures
  • Purchase frozen cultures
      • special delivery, in CO2
  • Thaw # containers needed
      • 1 container per 500 lbs.
      • calculated for 106 per g. meat
      • good for 2-3 hrs, then discard
  • Reduce nitrite by half
  • Add culture last to mixer
meat ph controlled by
Meat pH Controlled by:
  • qty. of dextrose added
  • ferment’n temperatures
      • culture specific
  • ferment’n time, before cooking
      • minimize time to pH 5.3 (to reduce chances of Staph toxin)
      • 6 to 18 hrs.
types of fermented meat products
Types of Fermented Meat Products
  • Semi-dry sausage
      • summer sausage
      • ferment to < pH 5.3
      • fully cooked (155-160F)
      • Aw = .90 - .94 (not shelf stable)
  • Non-refrig’d semi-dry
      • pH <5.0
      • m:p ratio <3.1
      • fully cooked/natural smoke
types of fermented meat products cont d
Types of Fermented Meat Products (Cont’d)
  • Dry Sausage
      • Pepperoni, Genoa Salami, Dry Salami, etc.
      • lower temperature & longer process than for semi-dry
      • ferment to pH 4.6
      • Aw = .85 - .91 (shelf stable)
      • proteolysis & lipolysis
        • resulting in peroxides
types of fermented meat products cont d17
Types of Fermented Meat Products (Cont’d)
  • Dry Sausage
      • unique flavors
        • mild off flavors to strong rancidity
        • less tangy
  • pH rises during drying
  • Cooking optional
      • use certified pork, 3.3% salt
      • unique texture w/out cooking
usda fsis regulations
USDA-FSIS Regulations
  • Dry product to established moisture:protein (m:p) ratios:
      • Pepperoni - 1.6:1
      • Genoa Salami – 2.1:1
      • Dry Salami – 1.9:1
chemical acidulants
Chemical Acidulants
  • Glucona delta lactone
      • 0.5% (GDL)
      • with moisture in product, produces lactic acid
      • sometimes too rapid, soft product
      • typical acrid flavor (Hickory Farms of Ohio)
  • Citric acid & sodium acid pyrophosphate
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