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Fermentation of Meat Products. Animal Science 550 Lynn Knipe Ohio State University. Fermentation of Meat Products, Based Upon:. microbes usingcarbohydrates as energy source. floral inversion inhibits Gram - organisms. pH reduced from 6.0 to 5.0.

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Fermentation of Meat Products

Animal Science 550

Lynn Knipe

Ohio State University


Fermentation of Meat Products, Based Upon:

  • microbes usingcarbohydrates as energy source.

  • floral inversion inhibits Gram- organisms.

  • pH reduced from 6.0 to 5.0.


M.O.’s Using Carbohydrates as Energy Source

  • Carbohydrates fermented before attacking protein & fat.

  • Low fat ground beef containing starch.


Floral Inversion Inhibits Gram Negative Organisms

  • Fresh meat: Gram negative organisms.

  • 2-3.5% salt, plus nitrite causes floral inversion.


pH Reduced from 6.0 to 5.0

  • Controls microbial growth.

  • Decreases water-holding capacity.

  • Faster drying at iso- electric point (pI, 5.1-5.3).


“Backslop” Method

  • “Wild” inoculation favored growth of lactics

  • Unique flavors

  • Lactobacilli(heterofermentive)

    • decarboxylation (tyr to tyramine)

    • CO2 & H202

  • Staph (coagulase positive)


  • Commercial Cultures

    • 1958 - first starter cultures available to meat industry

    • Characteristics:

      • Facultative anaerobes

      • Tolerant of 2-3% salt

      • Favor lactic acid production

      • Rapid fermentation to inhibit Staph.


    Commercial Cultures

    • Developed for 4 functions:

      • acidity

      • flavor

      • color

      • texture


    USDA-Approved Organisms for Meat

    • Pediococcus

    • Lactobacillus plantarium

    • Micrococcus

    • not coagulase negative Staph.


    Pediococcus

    • best for temperature >90ºF

    • short lag phase

    • homofermentative - produce only lactic acid

    • e.g., Lactacel:

      • P. cervisiae, P. acidilactici, and P. pentosaceus


    Lactobacillus plantarium

    • better for 60-90ºF (common for dry sausage)

    • other L. species are heterofermentative

      • produce CO2 & H202


    Micrococcus

    • reduces nitrates & nitrites to nitric oxide

    • reduces H202

    • M. varians


    Commercial Procedures

    • Purchase frozen cultures

      • special delivery, in CO2

  • Thaw # containers needed

    • 1 container per 500 lbs.

    • calculated for 106 per g. meat

    • good for 2-3 hrs, then discard

  • Reduce nitrite by half

  • Add culture last to mixer


  • Meat pH Controlled by:

    • qty. of dextrose added

    • ferment’n temperatures

      • culture specific

  • ferment’n time, before cooking

    • minimize time to pH 5.3 (to reduce chances of Staph toxin)

    • 6 to 18 hrs.


  • Types of Fermented Meat Products

    • Semi-dry sausage

      • summer sausage

      • ferment to < pH 5.3

      • fully cooked (155-160F)

      • Aw = .90 - .94 (not shelf stable)

  • Non-refrig’d semi-dry

    • pH <5.0

    • m:p ratio <3.1

    • fully cooked/natural smoke


  • Types of Fermented Meat Products (Cont’d)

    • Dry Sausage

      • Pepperoni, Genoa Salami, Dry Salami, etc.

      • lower temperature & longer process than for semi-dry

      • ferment to pH 4.6

      • Aw = .85 - .91 (shelf stable)

      • proteolysis & lipolysis

        • resulting in peroxides


    Types of Fermented Meat Products (Cont’d)

    • Dry Sausage

      • unique flavors

        • mild off flavors to strong rancidity

        • less tangy

  • pH rises during drying

  • Cooking optional

    • use certified pork, 3.3% salt

    • unique texture w/out cooking


  • USDA-FSIS Regulations

    • Dry product to established moisture:protein (m:p) ratios:

      • Pepperoni - 1.6:1

      • Genoa Salami – 2.1:1

      • Dry Salami – 1.9:1


    Chemical Acidulants

    • Glucona delta lactone

      • 0.5% (GDL)

      • with moisture in product, produces lactic acid

      • sometimes too rapid, soft product

      • typical acrid flavor (Hickory Farms of Ohio)

  • Citric acid & sodium acid pyrophosphate


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