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1. Fermentation of Meat Products Animal Science 550
Ohio State University
2. Fermentation of Meat Products, Based Upon: microbes using carbohydrates as energy source.
floral inversion inhibits Gram- organisms.
pH reduced from 6.0 to 5.0.
3. M.O.s Using Carbohydrates as Energy Source Carbohydrates fermented before attacking protein & fat.
Low fat ground beef containing starch.
4. Floral Inversion Inhibits Gram Negative Organisms Fresh meat: Gram negative organisms.
2-3.5% salt, plus nitrite causes floral inversion.
5. pH Reduced from 6.0 to 5.0 Controls microbial growth.
Decreases water- holding capacity.
Faster drying at iso- electric point (pI, 5.1- 5.3).
6. Backslop Method Wild inoculation favored growth of lactics
decarboxylation (tyr to tyramine)
CO2 & H202
Staph (coagulase positive)
7. Commercial Cultures 1958 - first starter cultures available to meat industry
Tolerant of 2-3% salt
Favor lactic acid production
Rapid fermentation to inhibit Staph.
8. Commercial Cultures Developed for 4 functions:
9. USDA-Approved Organisms for Meat Pediococcus
not coagulase negative Staph.
10. Pediococcus best for temperature >90F
short lag phase
homofermentative - produce only lactic acid
P. cervisiae, P. acidilactici, and P. pentosaceus
11. Lactobacillus plantarium better for 60-90F (common for dry sausage)
other L. species are heterofermentative
produce CO2 & H202
12. Micrococcus reduces nitrates & nitrites to nitric oxide
13. Commercial Procedures Purchase frozen cultures
special delivery, in CO2
Thaw # containers needed
1 container per 500 lbs.
calculated for 106 per g. meat
good for 2-3 hrs, then discard
Reduce nitrite by half
Add culture last to mixer
14. Meat pH Controlled by: qty. of dextrose added
fermentn time, before cooking
minimize time to pH 5.3 (to reduce chances of Staph toxin)
6 to 18 hrs.
15. Types of Fermented Meat Products Semi-dry sausage
ferment to < pH 5.3
fully cooked (155-160F)
Aw = .90 - .94 (not shelf stable)
m:p ratio <3.1
fully cooked/natural smoke
16. Types of Fermented Meat Products (Contd) Dry Sausage
Pepperoni, Genoa Salami, Dry Salami, etc.
lower temperature & longer process than for semi-dry
ferment to pH 4.6
Aw = .85 - .91 (shelf stable)
proteolysis & lipolysis
resulting in peroxides
17. Types of Fermented Meat Products (Contd) Dry Sausage
mild off flavors to strong rancidity
pH rises during drying
use certified pork, 3.3% salt
unique texture w/out cooking
18. USDA-FSIS Regulations Dry product to established moisture:protein (m:p) ratios:
Pepperoni - 1.6:1
Genoa Salami 2.1:1
Dry Salami 1.9:1
19. Chemical Acidulants Glucona delta lactone
with moisture in product, produces lactic acid
sometimes too rapid, soft product
typical acrid flavor (Hickory Farms of Ohio)
Citric acid & sodium acid pyrophosphate