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Unit #7 Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology. “Having sniffed the dead man’s lips, I detected a slightly sour smell, and I came to the conclusion that he had poison forced upon him.” — Sherlock Holmes, in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet. Drugs. Students will learn:.

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unit 7 drugs alcohol and toxicology

Unit #7Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

“Having sniffed the dead man’s lips, I detected a slightly sour smell, and I came to the conclusion that he had poison forced upon him.”

—Sherlock Holmes, in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s

A Study in Scarlet

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

drugs
Drugs

Students will learn:

  • How to apply deductive reasoning to a series of analytical data.
  • The limitations of presumptive (screening) tests.
  • The relationship between the electromagnetic spectrum and spectroscopic analysis.
  • The dangers of using prescription drugs, controlled substances, over-the-counter medications, and illegal drugs.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

drugs1
Drugs

Students will be able to:

  • Chemically identify illicit drug types.
  • Classify the types of illicit drugs and their negative effects.
  • Discuss the federal penalties for possession and use of controlled substances.
  • Explain the need for confirmatory tests.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

drugs2
Drugs
  • Describe IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and GC-MS
  • Present and interpret data with graphs.
  • Use the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR) to identify pills.
  • Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

drugs and crime
Drugs and Crime
  • A drug is a natural or synthetic substance designed to affect the subject psychologically or physiologically.
  • “Controlled substances” are drugs that are restricted by law
  • Controlled Substances Act is a law that was enacted in 1970; it lists illegal drugs, their category and their penalty for possession, sale or use.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

controlled substances act
Controlled Substances Act
  • Schedule I—high potential for abuse; no currently acceptable medical use in the US; a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision
  • Schedule II—high potential for abuse; a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions; abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
  • Schedule III—lower potential for abuse than the drugs in I or II; a currently accepted medical use in the US; abuse may lead to moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence
  • Schedule IV—low potential for abuse relative to drugs in III; a currently accepted medical use in the US; abuse may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence relative to drugs in III
  • Schedule V—low potential for abuse relative to drugs in IV; currently accepted medical use in the US; abuse may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence relative to drugs in IV

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

examples of controlled substances and their schedule placement
Examples of Controlled Substances and Their Schedule Placement
  • Schedule I—heroin (diacetylmorphine), LSD, marijuana, ecstasy (MDMA)
  • Schedule II—cocaine, morphine, amphetamines (including methamphetamines), PCP, Ritalin
  • Schedule III—intermediate acting barbiturates, anabolic steroids, ketamine
  • Schedule IV—other stimulants and depressants including Valium, Xanan, Librium, phenobarbital, Darvon
  • Schedule V—codeine found in low doses in cough medicines

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

identification of drugs
Identification of Drugs
  • PDR—Physicians’ Desk Reference
  • Field Tests—presumptive tests
  • Laboratory Tests—conclusive tests

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

human components used for drug analysis
Blood

Urine

Hair

Gastric Contents

Bile

Liver tissue

Brain tissue

Kidney tissue

Spleen tissue

Vitreous Humor of the Eye

Human ComponentsUsed for Drug Analysis

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

physicians desk reference
Physicians’ Desk Reference

PDR—a physicians’ desk reference is used to identify manufactured pills, tablets and capsules. It is updated each year. This can sometimes be a quick and easy identifier of the legally made drugs that may be found at a scene. The reference book gives a picture of the drug, whether it is a prescription, over the counter, or a controlled substance; as well as more detailed information about the drug.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

drug identification
Screening or presumptive tests

Spot or color tests

Microcrystalline test—

a reagent is added that produces a crystalline precipitate which is unique for a certain drug.

Chromatography

Confirmatory tests

Spectrophotometry

Ultraviolet (UV)

Visible

Infrared (IR)

Mass spectrometry

Drug Identification

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

presumptive color tests
Marquis—turns purple in the presence of most opium derivatives and orange-brown with amphetamines

Dillie-Koppanyi—turns violet-blue in the presence of barbiturates

Duquenois-Levine—turns a purple color in the presence of marijuana

Van Urk—turns a blue-purple in the presence of LSD

Scott test—color test for cocaine, blue

Presumptive Color Tests

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

chromatography
Chromatography
  • A technique for separating mixtures into their components
  • Includes two phases—a mobile one that flows past a stationary one.
  • The mixture interacts with the stationary phase and separates.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

types of chromatography
Types of Chromatography
  • Paper
  • Thin Layer (TLC)
  • Gas (GC)
  • Pyrolysis Gas (PGC)
  • Liquid (LC)
  • High Pressure Liquid (HPLC)
  • Column

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

paper chromatography
Paper Chromatography
  • Stationary phase—paper
  • Mobile phase—a liquid solvent

Capillary action moves the mobile phase through the stationary phase

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

thin layer chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography
  • Stationary phase— a thin layer of coating (usually alumina or silica) on a sheet of plastic or glass
  • Mobile phase—

a liquid solvent

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

retention factor r f
Retention Factor (Rf)
  • This is a number that represents how far a compound travels in a particular solvent
  • It is determined by measuring the distance the compound traveled and dividing it by the distance the solvent traveled.
  • If the Rf value for an unknown compound is close to or the same as that for the known compound, the two compounds are likely similar or identical (a match).

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

gas chromatography
Phases

Stationary—a solid or a viscous liquid that lines a tube or column

Mobile—an inert gas like nitrogen or helium

Analysis

Shows a peak that is proportional to the quantity of the substance present

Uses retention time instead of Rf for the qualitative analysis

Gas Chromatography

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

uses of gas chromatography
Uses of Gas Chromatography
  • Not considered a confirmation of a controlled substance
  • Used as a separation tool for mass spectroscopy (MS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR)
  • Used to quantitatively measure the concentration of a sample. (In a courtroom, there is no real requirement to know the concentration of a substance. It does not affect guilt or innocence).

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

spectroscopy
Spectroscopy
  • Spectroscopy—the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
  • Spectrophotometer—an instrument used to measure and record the absorption spectrum of a chemical substance.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

spectrophotometry
Spectrophotometry

Components

  • A radiation source
  • A frequency selector
  • A sample holder
  • A detector to convert electromagnetic radiation into an electrical signal
  • A recorder to produce a record of the signal

Types

  • Ultraviolet
  • Visible
  • Infrared

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

infrared spectometry
Infrared Spectometry
  • Material absorbs energy in the near-IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Compares the IR light beam before and after passing through a transparent sample.
  • Result—an absorption or transmittance spectrum
  • Gives a unique view of the substance; like a fingerprint

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

mass spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry

Gas chromatography has one major drawback, it does not give a specific identification. Mass spectrometry cannot separate mixtures. By combining the two (GCMS), constituents of mixtures can be specifically identified.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

mass spectrometry1
Mass Spectrometry

In a mass spectrometer, an electron beam is directed at sample molecules in a vacuum chamber. The electrons break apart the sample molecules into many positive charged fragments. These are sorted and collected according to their mass-to-charge ratio by an oscillating electric or a magnetic field.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

mass spectra
Mass Spectra

Each molecular species has its own unique mass spectrum.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

ir spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry
IR Spectrophotometry andMass Spectrometry
  • Both work well in identifying pure substances.
  • Mixtures are difficult to identify in both techniques
  • Both are compared to a catalog of knowns

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

people of historical significance
People of Historical Significance

Arthur Jeffrey Dempster was born in Canada, but studied and received his PhD from the University of Chicago. He began teaching physics there in 1916. In 1918, Dempster developed the first modern mass spectrometer. His version was over 100 times more accurate than previous ones developed, and established the basic theory and design of mass spectrometers that is still used to this day.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

people of historical significance1
People of Historical Significance

Francis William Aston was a British physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in the invention of the mass spectrograph. He used a method of electromagnetic focusing to separate substances. This enabled him to identify no fewer than 212 of the 287 naturally occurring elemental isotopes.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

unit 7 drugs alcohol and toxicology1

Unit #7Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

“All substances are poisons. There is none which is not. The right dose differentiates a poison and remedy.”

—Paracelsus (1495-1541). Swiss physician and chemist

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

toxicology and alcohol
Toxicology and Alcohol
  • A quantitative approach to toxicology.
  • The danger of using alcohol.

Students will learn:

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

toxicology and alcohol1
Toxicology and Alcohol
  • Discuss the connection of blood alcohol levels to the law, incapacity, and test results.
  • Understand the vocabulary of poisons.
  • Design and conduct scientific investigations.
  • Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications.
  • Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations.
  • Communicate and defend a scientific argument.

Students will be able to:

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

toxicology
Toxicology

Definition—the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms.

Types:

  • Environmental—air, water, soil
  • Consumer—foods, cosmetics, drugs
  • Medical, clinical, forensic

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

forensic toxicology
Forensic Toxicology
  • Postmortem—medical examiner or coroner
  • Criminal—motor vehicle accidents (MVA)
  • Workplace—drug testing
  • Sports—human and animal
  • Environment—industrial, catastrophic, terrorism

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

toxicology1
Toxicology

Toxic substances may:

  • Be a cause of death
  • Contribute to death
  • Cause impairment
  • Explain behavior

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

historical perspective of poisoners
Historical Perspective of Poisoners
  • Olympias—a famous Greek poisoner
  • Locusta—personal poisoner of Emperor Nero
  • Lucretia Borgia—father was Pope Alexander VI
  • Madame GiuliaToffana—committed over 600 successful poisonings, including two Popes.
  • HieronymaSpara—formed a society to teach women how to murder their husbands
  • Madame de Brinvilliers and CatherineDeshayes—French poisoners.

AND many others through modern times.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

the severity of the problem
The Severity of the Problem

“If all those buried in our cemeteries who were poisoned could raise their hands, we would probably be shocked by the numbers.”

—John Harris Trestrail, “Criminal Poisoning”

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

people of historical significance2
People of Historical Significance

Mathieu Orfila—known as the father of forensic toxicology, published in 1814 “Traite des Poisons” which described the first systematic approach to the study of the chemistry and physiological nature of poisons.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

aspects of toxicity
Aspects of Toxicity
  • Dosage
  • The chemical or physical form of the substance
  • The mode of entry into the body
  • Body weight and physiological conditions of the victim, including age and sex
  • The time period of exposure
  • The presence of other chemicals in the body or in the dose

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

lethal dose
Lethal Dose
  • LD50—refers to the dose of a substance that kills half the test population, usually within four hours
  • Expressed in milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

toxicity classes
Toxicity Classes

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

federal regulatory agencies
Federal Regulatory Agencies
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Consumer Product Safety Commission
  • Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

symptoms of various types of poisoning
Symptoms of Various Typesof Poisoning

Type of PoisonSymptom/Evidence

  • Caustic Poison (lye) Characteristic burns around the lips and mouth of the victim
  • Carbon Monoxide Red or pink patches on the chest and thighs, unusually bright red lividity
  • Sulfuric acid Black vomit
  • Hydrochloric acid Greenish-brown vomit
  • Nitric acid Yellow vomit
  • Phosphorous Coffee brown vomit. Onion or garlic odor
  • Cyanide Burnt almond odor
  • Arsenic, Mercury Pronounced diarrhea
  • Methyl (wood) or Nausea and vomiting, unconsciousness,

Isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol possibly blindness

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

critical information on poisons
Form

Common color

Characteristic odor

Solubility

Taste

Common sources

Lethal dose

Mechanism

Possible methods of administration

Time interval of onset of symptoms.

Symptoms resulting from an acute exposure

Symptoms resulting from chronic exposure

Disease states mimicked by poisoning

Notes relating to the victim

Specimens from victim

Analytical detection methods

Known toxic levels

Notes pertinent to analysis of poison

List of cases in which poison was used

Critical Informationon Poisons

—John Trestrail from “Criminal Poisoning”

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

to prove a case
To Prove a Case
  • Prove a crime was committed
  • Motive
  • Intent
  • Access to poison
  • Access to victim
  • Death was caused by poison
  • Death was homicidal

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

forensic autopsy
Forensic Autopsy

Look for:

  • Irritated tissues
  • Characteristic odors
  • Mees lines—single transverse white bands on nails.

Order toxicological screens

  • Postmortem concentrations should be done at the scene for comparison
  • No realistic calculation of dose can be made from a single measurement

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

human specimens for analysis
Blood

Urine

Vitreous Humor of Eyes

Bile

Gastric contents

Liver tissue

Brain tissue

Kidney tissue

Hair/nails

Human Specimens for Analysis

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

alcohol ethyl alcohol c 2 h 5 oh
Alcohol—Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH)
  • Most abused drug in America
  • About 40% of all traffic deaths are alcohol-related
  • Toxic—affecting the central nervous system, especially the brain
  • Colorless liquid, generally diluted in water
  • Acts as a depressant
  • Alcohol appears in blood within minutes of consumption; 30-90 minutes for full absorption
  • Detoxification—about 90% in the liver
  • About 5% is excreted unchanged in breath, perspiration and urine

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

rate of absorption
Rate of Absorption

Depends on:

  • amount of alcohol consumed
  • the alcohol content of the beverage
  • time taken to consume it
  • quantity and type of food present in the stomach
  • physiology of the consumer

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

bac blood alcohol content
BACBlood Alcohol Content
  • Expressed as percent weight per volume of blood
  • Legal limits in all states is 0.08%
  • Parameters influencing BAC:
    • Body weight
    • Alcoholic content
    • Number of beverages consumed
    • Time between consumption

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

slide50
BAC
  • Burn off rate of 0.015% per hour but can vary:
  • Male

BAC male = 0.071 x (oz) x (% alcohol)

body weight

  • Female

BAC female = 0.085 x (oz) x (% alcohol)

body weight

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

henry s law
Henry’s Law
  • When a volatile chemical is dissolved in a liquid and is brought to equilibrium with air, there is a fixed ratio between the concentration of the volatile compound in the air and its concentration in the liquid; this ratio is constant for a given temperature. THEREFORE, the concentration of alcohol in breath is proportional to that in the blood.
  • This ratio of alcohol in the blood to alcohol in the alveolar air is approximately 2100 to 1. In other words 1 ml of blood will contain nearly the same amount of alcohol as 2100 ml of breath.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

field tests
Field Tests
  • Preliminary tests—used to determine the degree of suspect’s physical impairment and whether or not another test is justified.
  • Psychophysical tests—3 Basic Tests
    • Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN): follow a pen or small flashlight, tracking left to right with one’s eyes. In general, wavering at 45 degrees indicates 0.10 BAC.
    • Nine Step walk and turn (WAT): comprehend and execute two or more simple instructions at one time.
    • One-leg stand (OLS): maintain balance, comprehend and execute two or more simple instructions at one time.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

the breathalyzer
The Breathalyzer
  • More practical in the field
  • Collects and measures alcohol content of alveolar breath
  • Breath sample mixes with 3 ml of 0.025 % K2Cr2O7 in sulfuric acid and water

2K2Cr2O7 + 3C2H5OH+ 8H 2SO4  2Cr2(SO4)3 + 2K2SO4 + 3CH3COOH + 11 H2O

  • Potassium dichromate is yellow, as concentration decreases its light absorption diminishes so the breathalyzer indirectly measures alcohol concentration by measuring light absorption of potassium dichromate before and after the reaction with alcohol

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

generalizations
Generalizations
  • During absorption, the concentration of alcohol in arterial blood will be higher than in venous blood.
  • Breath tests reflect alcohol concentration in the pulmonary artery.
  • The breathalyzer also can react with acetone (as found with diabetics), acetaldehyde, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and paraldehyde, but these are toxic and their presence means the person is in serious medical condition.
  • Breathalyzers now use an infrared light absorption device with a digital read-out. Prints out a card for a permanent record.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

people in the news
People in the News

John Trestrail is a practicing toxicologist who has consulted on many criminal poisoning cases. He is the founder of the Center for the Study of Criminal Poisoning in Grand Rapids, Michigan which has established an international database to receive and analyze reports of homicidal poisonings from around the world. He is also the director of DeVos Children’s Hospital Regional Poison Center. In addition, he wrote the book, Criminal Poisoning, used as a reference by law enforcement, forensic scientists and lawyers.

Unit # 7 - Drugs, Alcohol, and Toxicology

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