Overview of the digestive system
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Overview of the Digestive System. Digestive Tract: Mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon) Accessory Organs: Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Components of the Digestive System. GI Tract: Oral Cavity Pharynx

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Overview of the Digestive System

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Overview of the digestive system

Overview of the Digestive System

Digestive Tract:

Mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon)

Accessory Organs:

Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder


Components of the digestive system

Components of the Digestive System

  • GI Tract:

  • Oral Cavity

  • Pharynx

  • Esophagus

  • Stomach

  • Small Intestine

  • Large Intestine


Teeth

Teeth


Oral cavity

Oral Cavity


The pharynx

The Pharynx

  • Nasopharynx

  • Oropharynx

  • Laryngopharynx


Salivary glands

Salivary Glands


The esophagus

The Esophagus


Peristalsis in esophagus

Peristalsis in Esophagus

LE 21-8

Muscles contract

Muscles

contract,

constricting

passageway

and pushing

bolus down

Muscles relax

Bolus of

food

Muscles relax,

allowing

passageway

to open

Muscles contract

Muscles

relax

Stomach


Stomach

Stomach

  • Site where food is churned into chyme

  • Protein digestion begins


Stomach1

Stomach


Stomach2

Stomach


Duodenum and related organs

LE 21-11a

Duodenum and Related Organs

Liver

Bile

Gall-

bladder

Stomach

Bile

Pancreas

Acid chyme

Intestinal enzymes

Pancreatic

juice

Duodenum of

small intestine


Duodenum and related organs1

Duodenum and Related Organs


Small intestine gross anatomy

Small Intestine – Gross Anatomy

  • Longest portion of the alimentary canal

  • Site of most enzymatic digestion and absorption

  • Three subdivisions

    • Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum


Gross anatomy of large intestine

Gross Anatomy of Large Intestine

  • Cecum

  • Appendix

  • Ascending

  • Transverse

  • Descending

  • Sigmoid colon

  • Rectum

  • Anus


Overview of the digestive system

LE 21-12

Large

intestine

(colon)

Small

intestine

Sphincter

End

of small

intestine

Rectum

Anus

Nutrient

flow

Appendix

Cecum


Gross anatomy of large intestine1

Gross Anatomy of Large Intestine

  • Rectum – descends along the inferior half of the sacrum

  • Anal Canal – the last subdivision of the large intestine


Pancreas

Pancreas


Gallbladder

Gallbladder

  • Stores and concentrates bile

  • Expels bile into duodenum

    • Bile emulsifies fats


Gallbladder1

Gallbladder


Visceral surface of the liver

Visceral Surface of the Liver


Histology of the digestive tract

Histology of the Digestive Tract

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis Externa

Serosa


Mucosa innermost layer

Mucosa (Innermost Layer)

  • Epithelium

  • Connective Tissue (Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic nodules)

  • Smooth Muscle


Submucosa

Submucosa

Connective tissue

  • Blood vessels

  • Lymphatic vessels

  • Nerve plexus

  • May have glands and lymphatic tissue


Muscularis externa

Muscularis Externa

Smooth or Skeletal Muscle

If smooth muscle, usually 2 layers (circular and longitudinal)


Adventitia or serosa

Adventitia or Serosa

Adventitia (organs superior to diaphragm)

Serosa = visceral peritoneum


The esophagus1

The Esophagus

  • Stratified squamous epithelium

  • Mucous glands

  • Muscularis externa – skeletal muscle first third of length


Stomach microscopic anatomy

Stomach – Microscopic Anatomy


Stomach microscopic anatomy1

Stomach – Microscopic Anatomy


Small intestine peyer s patches

Small Intestine: Peyer’s Patches


The stomach microscopic anatomy

The Stomach – Microscopic Anatomy


The small intestine structural features

The Small Intestine – Structural Features


Small intestine microscopic anatomy

Small Intestine – Microscopic Anatomy


Overview of the digestive system

LE 21-11b

Lumen of intestine

Nutrient

absorption

Vein

with blood

en route to

the liver

Nutrient absorption

into epithelial cells

Microvilli

Epithelial

cells

Amino

acids

and

sugars

Fatty

acids

and

glycerol

Lumen

Muscle

layers

Fats

Blood

capillaries

Large

circular folds

Blood

Villi

Lymph

vessel

Lymph

Nutrient

absorption

Epithelial cells

Villi

Intestinal wall


Small intestine duodenum

Small Intestine: Duodenum

Br = Brunner glands

V = Villus

G = Goblet cells

Cr = Intestinal glands

MM = Muscularis

Mucosae

LP = Lamina Propria


Microscopic anatomy of large intestine

Microscopic Anatomy of Large Intestine

  • Villi are absent

  • Contains numerous goblet cells

  • Intestinal crypts – simple tubular glands

  • Lined with simple columnar epithelial tissue

  • Epithelium changes at anal canal

    • Becomes stratified squamous epithelium


Microscopic anatomy of large intestine1

Microscopic Anatomy of Large Intestine


Liver

Liver

  • Largest gland in the body

  • Performs over 500 functions

  • Digestive function – bile production

  • Performs many metabolic functions


Microscopic anatomy of liver

Microscopic Anatomy of Liver


Microscopic anatomy of liver1

Microscopic Anatomy of Liver


The peritoneal cavity and peritoneum

The Peritoneal Cavity and Peritoneum

  • Mesentery – a double layer of peritoneum

    • Holds organs in place

    • Sites of fat storage

    • Provides a route for circulatory vessels and nerves


Mesenteries

Mesenteries

  • Superficial view of the abdominal organs


Mesenteries1

Mesenteries

  • Greater omentum and transverse colon reflected


Mesenteries2

Mesenteries

  • Sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity


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