Chapter 4
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Chapter 4. An Age of Exploration . Lesson 1. Europeans Arrive in the Americas. Christopher Columbus. In the 1400s, European merchants bought ________ in Asia, and brought them back to Europe to sell. A _________ is someone who buys and sells goods.

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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

An Age of Exploration


Lesson 1

Lesson 1

Europeans Arrive in the Americas


Christopher columbus

Christopher Columbus

  • In the 1400s, European merchants bought ________ in Asia, and brought them back to Europe to sell.

  • A _________ is someone who buys and sells goods.

  • Travel to Asia took a ____ time, however, and people wanted to find a _______ route there.

  • _______________ _______________ was born in Italy. He studied ________________, or planning and controlling the direction of a ship.


Chapter 4

  • Columbus believed that he could reach Asia by a new route.

  • Columbus wanted to sail __________ across the Atlantic Ocean to get to __________.

  • He did not know that ____________ and ___________ _________________ were between Europe and Asia.

  • In 1492, Columbus asked ______ __________ and ________ ______________ of Spain to pay for a voyage to Asia.


Chapter 4

Columbus Sails West

  • Spain’s rulers agreed to pay for the voyage because they hoped to make a _________, or money a business has left after all expenses have been paid.

  • Ferdinand and Isabella believed that Columbus would find _________ and ________ and also spread their religion, ___________ ________________.

  • Columbus set sail on August 3, _____. He carried enough supplies for a _________.


Chapter 4

Close to ______ men traveled in the three ships named the _________, the ___________, and the ________ ______________.

Shortly after midnight on October 12, 1492 (just over 2 months later) a sailor aboard the Pinta saw __________.

The ships had arrived at an island in the Carribean Sea that Columbus named ____ __________. This island is part of the Bahamas today.

Columbus mistakenly believed he had reached land off the coast of ________, near India.

He named the islands the ________ __________ and the people living there Indians.


Chapter 4

  • The sailors on this expeditions were the first _________________ to meet people of the Caribbean.

  • These people called themselves the Taino, which means “________.”

  • The Taino people were ______________ and only fought to defend themselves from attacks.

  • After meeting the Taino and _____________ with them, Columbus sailed on with his crew.

  • He visited two other islands, ________ and _____________, before returning home.


Chapter 4

The Columbian Exchange

Columbus made _________ more voyages to the Caribbean and the coasts of ________ and _________ ______________.

Ferdinand and Isabella wanted him to ______ _______________ and search for ________.

Columbus claimed more _________ in the West Indies for _________.

The arrival of Europeans in the West Indies had many _____________ effects.

Europeans cut down _______ _______ on Caribbean islands and built large ______ farms.


Chapter 4

  • Many American __________ and ____________ more destroyed as the European cut down the rain forests and built farms.

  • The Europeans also brought many __________ that the Taino had not had before. Many died from _____________, or an outbreak of disease that affects many people.

  • When Columbus arrived originally, there were more than 600,000 Taino people living in the Caribbean Islands. Within 50 years of Columbus’s arrival, almost _____ Taino people were left.


Chapter 4

  • Columbus brought ____________, ___________, _____________, ______________, _______________, and _________ _________ plants with him on his journeys to the Western Hemisphere. These plants didn’t live in the Americas until he brought them there.

  • When he returned to Spain, he carried _____________ from the Americas. These plants included maize (_________), peanuts, potatoes, ______________, cocoa (_________________), and certain peppers, beans and squashes.

  • This movement of plants, animals, and people between the Eastern and Western Hemisphere is known as the _______________ _______________.


Chapter 4

  • The Columbian Exchange benefited people all over the world.

  • _______________ from the Americas became an important food for most Europeans.

  • ________ became an important crop in Africa.

  • ________ ____________ were grown as far away as ___________.


Chapter 4

Exploration Continues

  • In the early 1500s, European rulers sent more _________________, or people that travel to new places to learn about them, to the Americas.

  • Pedro Alvarez Cabral explored eastern South America in 1500 and claimed it for ____________.

  • An Italian named Amerigo Vespucci made several voyages to South America and the Caribbean.


Chapter 4

  • Vasco Nunez de ______, a ________ explorer, sailed to present day Panama in Central America. In 1513, he crossed Panama and reached the __________ ______________.

  • Ferdinand ____________ sailed for Spain.

  • He believed that he could go ________, go around South America, cross the _________ ________ and end up back in Spain.

  • He left in September 1519 with ______ ships and ______ men. In November of 1520, his ships entered the __________ ________. He named it Pacific which means ___________ because it looked so calm.


Chapter 4

  • Sailing west, Magellan and his crew didn’t see land for more than __________ ____________________.

  • Many sailors died of _____________________ and ______________________________ along the way.

  • When they reached the Philippine Islands off the coast of Asia, Magellan was ___________ in battle with people on the islands.

  • Only ______ of the five ships survived the trip.

  • Magellan’s crew became the first explorers to ________________, or sail completely around, the world.

  • Although Magellan did not survive the voyage, he __________ that Columbus’s theory about sailing west was _____________.


Lesson 2

Lesson 2

Spain Explores the Americas


Cortes conquers the aztecs

Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

  • The travels of ____________ and _________ were exciting news in Europe.

  • Even though explorations were expensive, Spain’s rulers still sent explorers because they believed they could bring back ___________.

  • One of these explorers was ____________ ____________. He led a group of soldiers to Mexico. His ships carried ________, ________ and more than 500 ____________.

  • ________________ is Spanish for conqueror.


Chapter 4

  • Cortes had heard about the ________ ______.

  • The Aztecs had built an ________, or many nations or territories ruled by a single group or leader, by conquering other Indian nations.

  • When Cortes arrived in Mexico he met ___________ of the Aztecs.

  • He convinced their enemies to join him in fighting the Aztecs.

  • An Indian woman named ________________ joined Cortes. She helped him communicate with the Aztecs.


Chapter 4

  • When the conquistadors arrived at the Aztec capital city, _____________________, they were amazed by its size and beauty.

  • The city was _________ as big as any European city they had ever seen, and it was built in the middle of a ___________.

  • The Aztec ruler _______________________ welcomed Cortes, but he wanted gold and put him in prison.

  • This began their conflict.


Chapter 4

  • The Aztecs attacked the _____________ and drove them out of Tenochtitlan.

  • Cortes persuaded other Indian groups to join his army.

  • Contact with the Spanish had infected the Aztec army, and many __________.

  • When Cortes returned, he met a __________ Aztec army and defeated them, and now controlled the Aztec empire.

  • By 1535, Spain had claimed all of __________ and renamed it ____ _________.

  • Soon after, ___________ __________ defeated the powerful _______ empire in South America.


Exploring north america

Exploring North America

  • The first explorer to reach the land that is now the USA was __________ ___ _________.

  • He led an expedition to _____________ and claimed it for _____________.

  • Spain also sent ___________ de _______ to conquer Florida and lands beyond. He also explored American Southwest.

  • _____ __________ was the first European to reach the ________________ _________.

  • He crossed the river at a point that is near ______________, ______________.

  • There is a ____________ in Memphis named after De Soto. In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de __________ led an expedition into North America. He was looking for ______________ of __________.


Chapter 4

Lesson 3

New Spain


New spain grows

New Spain Grows

  • In 1535, _________ controlled the former Aztec empire and made it into a colony called _______ ___________.

  • A _________ is a region ruled by another country.

  • Spanish settlers started _________ and _________. They dug _______ and ________ mines.

  • Spanish rulers sent __________ to spread Christianity. They also started ___________, or religious communities where priests taught Christianity to American Indians.


New settlements

New Settlements

  • Spain was not the only nation trying to claim North American lands.

  • The ____________, ______________, _________ and later the ____________ explored North America.

  • The Spanish built ___________ to protect Spanish claims and guard against attack.

  • Various explorers started settlements in places that are now USA cities including St. Augustine in _________ and Sante Fe in ____ ________.


Life in new spain

Life in New Spain

  • New Spain had good _______. Many settlers built ___________________, or large farms or ranches. Hacienda owners relied on ________________ to farm the land.

  • When many Indians dies from being overworked in fields and mines, the Spanish brought _____________ _____________ .

  • ____________ is a system in which people can be owned and forced to work without pay.

  • Priests at Spanish missions wanted to _______, or change someone’s religious beliefs, to ________________________.


Chapter 4

  • A priest named Bartolome de las ____________ wanted to protect the Indians.

  • He convinced the _______ of __________ to make laws to protect them, but most people ignored these laws.

  • In 1680, a Pueblo Indian leader name Pope led a ___________, or a violent uprising against a ruler, against the Spanish in New Mexico.


Latitude and longitude

Latitude and Longitude

  • Review TB p. 90-91.


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