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Effect of Increasing Division of Labor on Gender Inequality. Shift to production for exchange Surplus held by a few men at the top Lower classes and women dependent Extrahousehold (public) sector dominated by men Household (private) sphere devalued Women labor for family use & reproduction

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effect of increasing division of labor on gender inequality
Effect of Increasing Division of Labor on Gender Inequality
  • Shift to production for exchange
  • Surplus held by a few men at the top
  • Lower classes and women dependent
  • Extrahousehold (public) sector dominated by men
  • Household (private) sphere devalued
  • Women labor for family use & reproduction
  • Women lose adult status, become male property
materialist theory
Materialist Theory
  • Marxist theory critiqued and refined
  • Materialist paradigm still useful and influential
  • Economic base (infrastructure)
    • Means of production = land, tools, equipment,

factories, etc. used for livelihood

    • Relations of production = class relations

between those who own the means of

production (bourgeoisie)

and non-owners who labor (proletariat)

  • Determines superstructure
    • Other parts of culture, e.g., law,

political & social structure, ideology

Ideology

Social organization

Economic subsistence

materialist feminist theory
Materialist Feminist Theory
  • Eleanor Leacock – Innu of Labrador
    • Commercial fur trade 1800s
    • Production for use  production for exchange
    • Women removed from economic activities
    • Women lose status, power, autonomy
  • Sedentarization of nomadic/foraging groups
    • Women removed from productive roles
  • Two primary factors in women’s status
    • Contribution to subsistence
    • Control of resources, including exchange
kimmel
Kimmel
  • Theories that rely on biological inevitability
    • warfare
    • male bonding
    • exchange of women
kimmel correlations of gender asymmetry
Kimmel: Correlations of Gender Asymmetry
  • Need for physical strength
  • Family size
  • Childcare
  • Father & son relationship
  • Control of fertility
  • Control over property
  • Spatial and ritual segregation
  • Perception of environment
  • Contribution to food supply
  • Work segregation
  • Control of political & ideological resources
  • Capitalism & industrialization
  • Demographic imbalance
  • Circumcision
rapp women and the origin of the state
Rapp – Women and the Origin of the State

Historical, political, economic, & kinship systems in relation to subordination of women

  • Elite women in ranked (pre-state) societies
  • Increased stratification and hypergamy
  • Emphasis on women’s purity  control sexuality
  • Religious change
    • goddesses  gods
    • India: Dravidian vs. Aryan
    • Christian androgyny
rapp women and the origin of the state1
Rapp – Women and the Origin of the State
  • Warfare
    • Warriors valued  male privilege
    • Warrior absence  female autonomy
  • Trade
    • Labor exploitation
    • Marriage alliances, polygyny
    • Bridewealth and class
    • Women as traders
  • Penetration into Third World
    • Colonialism, development
    • Women lose power, property, autonomy, valued roles
domestic public divide
Domestic/Public Divide
  • Rosaldo and Lamphere: Women,

Culture, and Society 1974

    • Rosaldo: D/P correlation with women’s status
      • Domestic/public dichotomy weak  women’s status higher
    • Chodorow: Reproduction and mothering
      • Female continuity vs. male separation
      • -e.g. Herdt: Sambia of New Guinea
domestic public divide1
Domestic/Public Divide
  • Critiques of D/P dichotomy
    • Universal?
    • Influence of women’s struggles in U.S.
    • Never absolute – e.g. different uses, times
    • Generalization vs. real complexities
    • Different subject positions (class, race, etc.)
    • Historical development: industrial workplace
    • Western paradigms of D/P relative power
      • e.g. Java, India
    • ‘Patriarchy’
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