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Chap 1.4 Europe . I. European Life leading up to 1492 A. Life in Middle Ages (1000AD) in West. Europe 1. Feudalism - system of interlocking loyalties in Medieval Society. Roman Catholic Church most powerful governing body b. Kings & Queens divided

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slide2
I. European Life leading up to 1492

A. Life in Middle Ages (1000AD) in West. Europe

1. Feudalism- system of interlocking loyalties in

Medieval Society

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Roman Catholic Church

most powerful governing

body

b. Kings & Queens divided

kingdoms into smaller

units run by Nobles or

Lords

c. Lords protected by lesser

nobles (knights)

d. Most of population in

low class

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2. Villages (Manors) lived like separate islands

a. Manors completely self-sufficient

b. No connections between manors

c. All land owned by lord or noble

d. Manor dwellers (low class) called serfs

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1) Farmed land & maintained roads

2) Bound to land

3) Not allowed to leave land w/out lord’s

permission

4) Simple homes & furnishings

5) Food & clothing had little variety

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B. Why life in Western Europe began to change?

1. Due to wars

a. Muslims (followers of Islam) invade Europe

1) Islam grew out of Middle East in mid 600’s

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2) Mohammad -prophet who began spreading

word

3) Spread from ME thru North Africa & up into

Spain

b. Christians angered by Muslims

1) Muslims had captured Holy Land (Jerusalem)

2) Christianity banded manors & people together

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c. 1095 Pope called for WAR against Muslims to regain lost land

d. Wars became known as “The Crusades”

1) Christians & Muslims fought for 200 yrs

2) Crusades helped increase trade

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2. Knights learned new more

comfortable ways of life

a. Spices (pepper, nutmeg,

cloves, cinnamon, &

ginger)

b. Soap & to bathe more

often

c. New medicines & dyes

d. New fabrics & silks

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3. Italian Merchants carry Eastern goods to

Europe

a. Increased demand for goods & improved

trade made road improvement necessary

b. Towns would eventually develop around

marketplaces

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4. Travelers’ tales awaken

European interest in Asia

- Marco Polo tells about

the wonders of Asia

1) 17 yrs old from Venice

Italy

2) Gone for 24 years

(1271- 1295)

3) Stories fueled interest

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5. The Middle Class Develops

a. Increased trade & travel gave people

opportunity

b. Became merchants, moneychangers, &

artisans- skilled workers (shoemakers,

weavers, bakers etc)

c. Gave them more power & a voice in how they

were governed

d. Feudalism was weakened- alliance to

monarchy remained

e. Nationalism- love for & loyalty for one’s

country developed

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6. A New Age (1400- 1600)

a. Great changes caused people to question old

thinking

b. Renaissance (rebirth)- Period in Europe when

people began to explore new ideas & make

important scientific discoveries

c. Art & Literature also greatly affected by new

way of thinking

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7. Inventions & Improvement Make long ocean

voyages possible

a. Before Crusades people barely traveled

b. Reading & writing mainly done by priests (latin)

- W/ more interaction & exchange of ideas the

need for reading & writing increased

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c. New instruments aid

Sailors

1) Compass developed

for direction

2) Latitude &

Longitude

system was

developed for

location

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d. New Method of Printing invented

1) (1440’s) - movable type made printing quicker & easier (300 pgs per day) Johann Gutenberg

2) Helped spread ideas & document travels for others to follow & build upon

a) 1456- 1st printed book = The Bible

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8. Power of the Church Threatened

a. Accessibility of the Bible showed that

Christianity simple

b. Made people see that Church had become too

big & rich- began to break away

c. Further strengthening each Nation’s Monarchy

ad