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Chap 1.4 Europe . I. European Life leading up to 1492 A. Life in Middle Ages (1000AD) in West. Europe 1. Feudalism - system of interlocking loyalties in Medieval Society. Roman Catholic Church most powerful governing body b. Kings & Queens divided

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I. European Life leading up to 1492

A. Life in Middle Ages (1000AD) in West. Europe

1. Feudalism- system of interlocking loyalties in

Medieval Society

  • Roman Catholic Church

    most powerful governing


    b. Kings & Queens divided

    kingdoms into smaller

    units run by Nobles or


    c. Lords protected by lesser

    nobles (knights)

    d. Most of population in

    low class

2. Villages (Manors) lived like separate islands

a. Manors completely self-sufficient

b. No connections between manors

c. All land owned by lord or noble

d. Manor dwellers (low class) called serfs

1) Farmed land & maintained roads

2) Bound to land

3) Not allowed to leave land w/out lord’s


4) Simple homes & furnishings

5) Food & clothing had little variety

B. Why life in Western Europe began to change?

1. Due to wars

a. Muslims (followers of Islam) invade Europe

1) Islam grew out of Middle East in mid 600’s

2) Mohammad -prophet who began spreading


3) Spread from ME thru North Africa & up into


b. Christians angered by Muslims

1) Muslims had captured Holy Land (Jerusalem)

2) Christianity banded manors & people together

c. 1095 Pope called for WAR against Muslims to regain lost land

d. Wars became known as “The Crusades”

1) Christians & Muslims fought for 200 yrs

2) Crusades helped increase trade

2. Knights learned new more land

comfortable ways of life

a. Spices (pepper, nutmeg,

cloves, cinnamon, &


b. Soap & to bathe more


c. New medicines & dyes

d. New fabrics & silks

3. Italian Merchants carry Eastern goods to land


a. Increased demand for goods & improved

trade made road improvement necessary

b. Towns would eventually develop around


4. Travelers’ tales awaken land

European interest in Asia

- Marco Polo tells about

the wonders of Asia

1) 17 yrs old from Venice


2) Gone for 24 years

(1271- 1295)

3) Stories fueled interest

5. The Middle Class Develops land

a. Increased trade & travel gave people


b. Became merchants, moneychangers, &

artisans- skilled workers (shoemakers,

weavers, bakers etc)

c. Gave them more power & a voice in how they

were governed

d. Feudalism was weakened- alliance to

monarchy remained

e. Nationalism- love for & loyalty for one’s

country developed

6. A New Age (1400- 1600) land

a. Great changes caused people to question old


b. Renaissance (rebirth)- Period in Europe when

people began to explore new ideas & make

important scientific discoveries

c. Art & Literature also greatly affected by new

way of thinking

7. Inventions & Improvement Make long ocean land

voyages possible

a. Before Crusades people barely traveled

b. Reading & writing mainly done by priests (latin)

- W/ more interaction & exchange of ideas the

need for reading & writing increased

c. New instruments aid land


1) Compass developed

for direction

2) Latitude &


system was

developed for


d. New Method of Printing invented land

1) (1440’s) - movable type made printing quicker & easier (300 pgs per day) Johann Gutenberg

2) Helped spread ideas & document travels for others to follow & build upon

a) 1456- 1st printed book = The Bible

8. Power of the Church Threatened land

a. Accessibility of the Bible showed that

Christianity simple

b. Made people see that Church had become too

big & rich- began to break away

c. Further strengthening each Nation’s Monarchy