Gerunds verbal nouns
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Gerunds- verbal nouns. Consider this sentence. Discere est utilis - to learn is fun or learning is fun The infinitive is functioning as a subject To put discere in any other case than the nominative a gerund is used. Formation.

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Gerunds- verbal nouns

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Gerunds verbal nouns

Gerunds- verbal nouns


Consider this sentence

Consider this sentence

  • Discereestutilis- to learn is fun

    or learning is fun

  • The infinitive is functioning as a subject

  • To put discere in any other case than the nominative a gerund is used


Formation

Formation

  • Add the ending – ndi to the stem of 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugation and

  • Add the ending –endi to the stem of 4thconjugation and 3rd -io


Then decline it like a neuter noun 2 nd declension

Then decline it like a neuter noun 2nd declension


Irregular gerunds

Irregular Gerunds

  • Eo, ire- eundi- of going

  • Fero, ferre- ferendi- of carrying/bearing


Summary of gerunds

Summary of Gerunds

  • Form by adding-ndito stem of 1/2/3 and –endi to stem of 4/ 3io

  • Conjugate it like a 2nd conjugation neuter

  • The nominative of the gerund is the infinitive- to verb/ verbing


Exercise 1 page 340

Exercise 1 page 340

  • Animadverto, ere – to notice

    animadvertendi- of noticing

  • Appropinquo, are- to approach

    Appropinquandi- of approaching

  • Cerno, ere- to see, distinguish

    Cernendi- of seeing

  • Clamo, are- to shout

    Clamandi- of shouting

  • Fingo, fingere- to imagine, form in mind

    Fingendi- of imagining

  • Impingo, ere- to strike, push

    Impingendi- of pushing


Gerunds verbal nouns

7. infligo, infligere- to strike, inflict

infligendi- of striking

8. percutio, percutere-to strike through

percutiendi- of striking through

9. repello, repellere- to thrust back, push back

repellendi- of pushing back

10. rideo, ridere- to laugh, smile

ridendi- of laughing, smiling

11. veho, vehere- to drive, carry

vehendi- of driving, carrying


Uses of the gerund

Uses of the gerund

  • Genitive- the gerund is used with nouns or adjetives that take the genitive

    • Studiosus- eager for

      • Eramdiscendistudiosus- I was found of learning

  • Allen & Greenough's NEW LATIN GRAMMAR 504.

    • The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive:--


Dative

Dative

  • Used to indicate the purpose of the action

    • Quaero locum aedificando

      • I am looking for a place for building

      • ie: I am looking for a place to build


Accusative

Accusative

  • Usually accompanied by the preposition “ad” indicates the purpose of the action

    • Paratus sum ad pugnandum-

    • I am ready for fighting


Ablative

Ablative

  • Used for means or instrument

    • Discimuslegendo

    • We learn by reading


Exercise 3 translate into english

Exercise 3- Translate into English

  • Consiliumcepiappropinquandi ad oppidum

    I made a plan of approaching i.e. to approach

  • Postquamdiucurcumivi, tandem inveni locum descendendo

    After I went around for a long time, I finally found a place for descending.

  • Multi amici venerant ad spectandum.

    Many friend had come to watch.

  • Apectandointellexi me esse in caelo cum sideribus

    By watching I understood that I was in the sky with the stars.


Exercise 5

Exercise 5

  • Multi sundstudiosicaelispectandi

    Many people are fond of watching the sky.

    Nicolauseratstudiosusspeluncaeinvestigandae

    nicolas was fond of searching into the cave

    Sederibuscernendisilleintellexit se esse in caelo.

    by seeing constellations he understood that he was in the sky.


Gerundive a verbal adjective

Gerundive- a verbal adjective

  • Formed identical to the gerund

  • Is a 1st and 2nd declension adjective

    • Example- parandus, a, um

  • The basic meaning of the gerundive is PASSIVE

    • Puellalaudanda- a girl to be praised

    • Liber legendus- a book to be read

    • Puellaamanda- a girl_________________


If the gerund has a direct object it becomes a gerundive

If the gerund has a direct object it becomes a gerundive

  • Eramstudiosusvidendi-

    • I was eager of seeing ie. I was eager to see.

  • Eramstudiosusvidendaespeluncae-

    • I was eager to see the cave- “for the cave to be seen”

    • Videndae= gerundive modifying speluncae feminine genitive singular


Exercise 51

Exercise 5

  • Gerund: Multi suntstudiosispectandi- many are eager of seeing. i.e. many are eager to see

    Gerundive: Multi suntstudiosispectandicaeli.


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