Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature
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Hydrocarbon Characteristics & Nomenclature. 9/22/08. hydrocarbon = a compound composed of carbon and hydrogen. in a hydrocarbon, the carbon atoms are hooked together in a chain, and the hydrogen atoms surround them. There are 3 categories of hydrocarbons:

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Hydrocarbon Characteristics & Nomenclature

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Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

Hydrocarbon Characteristics & Nomenclature

9/22/08


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

hydrocarbon = a compound composed of carbon and hydrogen.

in a hydrocarbon, the carbon atoms are hooked together in a chain, and the hydrogen atoms surround them. There are 3 categories of hydrocarbons:

Alkanes = have only single bonds between the carbon atoms.

Alkenes = have at least one double bond between 2 of the carbon atoms in the chain.

Alkynes = have at least one triple bond between 2 of the carbon atoms in the chain.

structural formula = visual representation of the bonding arrangement in a hydrocarbon, using “sticks” for e- pairs.

all the carbons in a hydrocarbon will always have 4 (and only 4) bonds!

H H H H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀׀׀׀

H−C−C−C−C−C−C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H H H H

H H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H−C=C−C−C−C=C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H H

H H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H−C−C−C≡C−C−C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H H


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

  • the best source of hydrocarbons is petroleum (crude oil), which can contain between 10 and 100 different hydrocarbons in one sample, depending on what region of the world it was mined from.

  • 66% of all the world’s petroleum comes from the Middle East, and the US alone uses 26% of all the petroleum available today.


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

  • the best source of hydrocarbons is petroleum (crude oil), which can contain between 10 and 100 different hydrocarbons in one sample, depending on what region of the world it was mined from.

  • 66% of all the world’s petroleum comes from the Middle East, and the US alone uses 26% of all the petroleum available today.


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

  • the best source of hydrocarbons is petroleum (crude oil), which can contain between 10 and 100 different hydrocarbons in one sample, depending on what region of the world it was mined from.

  • 66% of all the world’s petroleum comes from the Middle East, and the US alone uses 26% of all the petroleum available today.


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

  • hydrocarbon’s formulas are based on what are called “general formulas.”

  • let’s practice category identification, based on general formulas.

    • C3H8 = _________  C8H14 = _________  CH4= ___________

    • C5H12 = _________  C6H12 = _________  C9H20 = _________

    • C2H4 = __________ C4H6 = __________  C10H22 = _________

      Note: the general formula for alkenes and alkynes is based on only one double or triple bond being present.

  • all hydrocarbons are named using a Greek prefix naming system. These prefixes are slightly different that those used for covalent compounds.

alkanes =CnH2n + 2

alkenes =CnH2n

alkynes =CnH2n - 2


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

  • all hydrocarbons are named using a Greek prefix naming system. These prefixes are slightly different that those used for covalent compounds.

  • hydrocarbons are named based upon:

    1.how many carbons are present,

    2.what type of bonds are found within the chain, and

    3.where double or triple bonds are found in the chain

  • prefixes for number of carbons in chain: see table

    • alkanes (single bonds) end in “-ane”

    • alkenes (double bond) end in “-ene”

    • alkynes (triple bond) end in “-yne”


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

  • the position of the double bond or triple bond (if present) is indicated with a number that goes in front of the name of the compound. Always start counting carbons from the end the double or triple bond is closest to.

    Examples and Practice: give the name, formula, and/or structure:

H H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H−C−C−C≡C−C−C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H H

H H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H−C−C≡C−C−C−C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H H

3-octyne

2-octyne


Hydrocarbon characteristics nomenclature

Examples and Practice: give the name, formula, and/or structure:

 Now get to work on your funsheet! 

H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀

H−C−C−C=C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H

H H

׀׀

H−C=C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀

H H H H

H H H H H H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H−C−C−C≡C−C−C−C−C−H

׀׀׀׀׀׀

H H H H H H


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