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Physics Unit 6: Thermodynamics

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Physics Unit 6: Thermodynamics. “Thermodynamics”. Is derived from Greek meaning “movement of heat.”. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Official Definition: When heat flows in or out of a system, the energy it gains or loses is equal to the amount of heat transferred. Or… Energy = Heat

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thermodynamics
“Thermodynamics”
  • Is derived from Greek meaning “movement of heat.”
the first law of thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Official Definition:When heat flows in or out of a system, the energy it gains or loses is equal to the amount of heat transferred.
  • Or… Energy = Heat
  • Is analogous to the Law of Conservation of Energy
  • We are now dealing with Internal Energy
temperature
Temperature:
  • What is it?
    • How “Hot” or “Cold” a substance is.
    • Temperature represents the average translational kinetic energy of the individual particles in a system.
  • The Temperature Scales
    • Fahrenheit – water freezes at 32oF and boils at 212oF
    • Celsius – Water freezes at 0oC and boils at 100oC
    • Kelvin – is based off of Absolute Zero
  • Absolute Zero
    • So cold that all particles stop moving!
    • Total energy of the particles is 0.
specific heat capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
  • What is it?
    • The resistance to change in temperature of a substance.
  • The Equation:
    • Q = mcΔTWhere: Q = heat addedm = mass of the samplec = specific heat capacityΔT = change in temperature
  • Examples:
    • How much heat energy is required in order to raise the temperature of a 0.5 kg iron nail from 25oC to 80oC?
      • Q = mcΔTQ = (0.5)(460)(55) = 12,650 Joules
the second law of thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Official Definition:Heat, of itself, never flows from a colder object to a warmer object.
  • Energy always flows from Hot to Cold
  • This law is also called the Law of Entropy
what is entropy
What is Entropy?
  • The amount of disorder in a system
  • The universe is always moving towards more entropy
  • Examples:
    • Ice melting
    • Liquid water evaporating
  • It takes Work (energy) to decrease Entropy
types of heat transfer
Types of Heat Transfer
  • Conduction
    • Heat transfer between materials that are in direct contact with each other.
  • Convection
    • Transfer in a fluid by movement of the substance itself.
  • Radiation
    • Energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves.
phase changes
Phase Changes
  • The States of Matter:
phase changes1
Phase Changes

Boiling

  • Types of Phase Changes:
    • Melting
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation
    • Boiling
    • Sublimation

Melting

Evaporation

Condensation

Sublimation

phase changes2
Phase Changes
  • How do you change the melting point or boiling point of a substance?
    • Add a solute
    • Change the pressure
phase changes3
Phase Changes
  • Energy During Phase Changes
    • What happens to the temperature of water as heat is added?
      • It Increases.
    • What happens to the temperature during a phase change?
      • It remains constant.
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