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America and the World. 1897-1917 Expansion in the Pacific War with Spain Expansion in Latin America. Imperialism. The quest for colonial empire. 4 Reasons: Political; Economic; Social; Military Need for markets Need for raw materials Gain power Gain prestige. Alfred Thayer Mahan.

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America and the world

America and the World

1897-1917

Expansion in the Pacific

War with Spain

Expansion in LatinAmerica


Imperialism
Imperialism

  • The quest for colonial empire.

  • 4 Reasons:

  • Political; Economic; Social; Military

    • Need for markets

    • Need for raw materials

    • Gain power

    • Gain prestige


Alfred thayer mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan

  • The Influence of Sea Power upon History

  • Book written by Mahan

  • Key Argument:

    • United States needed a strong navy to protect its economic interests in foreign markets.


U s imperialism
U.S. Imperialism

  • Other countries competing for expansion

  • Expansionism promoted within the states.

  • Through Imperialism the U.S. will:

    • Spread Christianity

    • Spread political system (democracy)


Acquiring hawaii
Acquiring Hawaii

  • Why interested?

    • Tropical climate

    • Fertile soil

  • Perfect location for naval base/ coal station

    • Why would the U.S. want to put a naval base/ coal station in Hawaii?


Hawaii
Hawaii

  • American Sugar Companies

  • Strong influence over King Kalakaua

    • (Sugar = The Big Business of Hawaii)

  • U.S.A.

    • Wanted Pearl Harbor

      • Hawaiian Planters (business owners) form a league

      • Force King Kalakaua to sign the Bayonette Constitution.

        • Signed at gunpoint.


  • The hawaiian league
    The Hawaiian League

    • Made up of:

    • 400 American

      • Businessmen

      • Planters

      • Traders

        • Sugar planters and American interests had strong influence over Hawaiian trade, commerce, and were looking to increase their power in Hawaiian politics.

    • Key:

    • IN FAVOR OF ANNEXATION

      • Annexation by the United States

        • What is annexation?


    The bayonet constitution
    The Bayonet Constitution

    • King Kalakua

    • Refused to give U.S.A. Pearl Harbor.

      • Sugar Planters – forced Klakaua at gunpoint to sign a treaty giving the U.S.A. a naval base at Pearl Harbor.


    Queen liliuokalani
    Queen Liliuokalani

    • Nationalist

      • Nationalist

  • Pride in her country

  • Wanted to restore Hawaii and rid Hawaii of foreign controls (U.S.A.)


  • The fall of hawaii
    The Fall of Hawaii

    • Queen Liliuokalani

      • Wanted to return power to native Hawaiians.

      • Attempts to re-write the Bayonet Constitution

  • Supporters of Annexation:

    • Rise Up

      • Set up a provisional (temporary) government.

      • Occupy government buildings.

  • U.S. Navy arrived to “protect” American lives and property.

    • With guns;cannons; and the threat of violence, the Queen surrenders Hawaii to American control.


  • Queen liliuokalani1
    Queen Liliuokalani

    • Reading

      Questions:

      Why does the Queen surrender Hawaii?

      Was this fair?

      Why do you think the U.S.A. apologized? / Do you believe the U.S.A. should have apologized?


    United states and china
    United States and China

    • Hawaii

    • Serves as a convenient stopping point for American trading ships sailing to China.

    • What is the appeal of trading with China?


    Spheres of influence
    Spheres of Influence

    • Regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trades.

      • Monopoly?

      • Britain; Russia; France; Germany

        • All maintained spheres of influence in China.


    United states
    United States

    • Feared losing the Chinese Market

    • Getting “squeezed out” of trade with China by Britain, Russia, France, Germany.

      • How is this similar to the United States motivation for imperialism?


    The open door policy
    The Open Door Policy

    • Give all nations an equal right to trade with China.

    • Protect China’s territorial integrity (right to rule itself)

      • A series of “Open Door Notes”

    • Developed by Secretary of State John Hay.

      • European Nations – neither accept or deny policy.

      • Hay – assumes acceptance.


    The boxer rebellion
    The Boxer Rebellion

    • The Boxers

    • Against foreign influence in China.

    • “The Boxer Rebellion”

      The Boxers:

      • Attacked 300 missionaries in Northern China.

      • Walled-in foreign settlements in China’s capital Beijing

      • Foreign countries sent in troops to protect the foreigners.


    Emerging japan
    Emerging Japan

    • 1894

    • Japan invades China

      • What is this an example of?

  • Japan and Russia:

    • Constantly at conflict with each other for Chinese land and resources.


  • The russo japanese war
    The Russo-Japanese War

    • 1904

      • Japanese attack Russian troops in Manchuria (northern China).


    U s a concerns
    U.S.A. Concerns:

    • If Russia wins:

      • Cut off trade with Manchuria

    • If Japan wins:

      • Cut off trade with China

      • President Theodore Roosevelt

        • Japan had won a series of crucial battles

        • Roosevelt was asked by Japan to help negotiate a peace between the two powers.


    Treaty of portsmouth
    Treaty of Portsmouth

    • Portsmouth, New Hampshire

    • Ended the Russo-Japanese War

      • Both sides agree to leave Manchuria


    Treaty of portsmouth1
    Treaty of Portsmouth

    • Lasting Impact:

      • Prestige (made U.S.A. look good)

      • Theodore Roosevelt wins a Nobel Peace Prize

      • U.S.A. is concerned over Japan’s growing power.


    The great white fleet
    The Great White Fleet

    • What was it?

      • The launching of 4 Destroyers and 16 Battleships on a world tour.

        • Ships were painted in all white and traveled 46,000 miles on their tour.

  • Why launch it?

    • To show the U.S.A. had a strong Navy

    • To deter powers from waging war with U.S.A. in time of conflict

  • Outcome:

    • Demonstrated the power of the U.S.A. Navy


  • Review
    Review

    • Secretary of State John Hay

    • Open Door Policy

    • Boxer Rebellion

    • Spheres of Influence

    • Bayonet Constitution.

    • Queen Liliuokalani

    • Treaty of Portsmouth

    • Russo-Japanese War

    • The Great White Fleet

    • Summarize the acquisition of Hawaii


    The spanish american war
    The Spanish American War

    • Spanish Colonies:

      • Cuba and Puerto Rico

      • Conflict in Cuba:

        • Cubans want independence

      • Cubans revolt!

      • Spanish General Valeriano Weyler

        • Puts down the Cuban revolt and puts revolutionaries in concentration camps.

        • 200,000 Cubans die of disease and/or starvation in these camps.

    Weyler


    The influence of the media
    The Influence of the Media

    • William Randolph Hearst

      • New York Journal

    • Joseph Pulitzer

      • New York World

    • Sympathized (sided on) the Cubans side.

      • Why?

        • Connection:

          • Cuban independence and the American Revolution

    Hearst

    Pulitzer


    Yellow journalism
    Yellow Journalism

    • journalism that downplays legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines that sell more newspapers.

      • New York Journal and Herald both used “yellow journalism” in reporting on the Cuban Revolutionaries.


    Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)


    The maine incident
    The tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)Maine Incident

    • Hearst – pressed for U.S.A. intervention in Cuba

      • Why is Hearst’s motivation for war a problem?

  • McKinley

  • Anti-war with Spain

  • BUT

    • Spain’s Minister to the U.S.A.

      • Letter sold to Hearst and published.

  • Described McKinley as “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”


  • Uss maine incident
    USS tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)Maine Incident

    • Sent to Havana Harbor

    • Goal:

    • Protect U.S. sailors and property

    • February 15, 1898

    • Explosion on board the Maine.

    • Press / Americans – BLAMED SPANISH!

      • Coal Bin Theory

        • “Remember the Maine!”


    Key terms people
    Key Terms / People tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Platt Amendment

    • Protectorate

    • Foraker Act

    • Secretary of State John Hay

    • Philippe Buneau-Varilla

    • Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty

    • Monroe Doctrine

    • Roosevelt Corollary

    • Dollar Diplomacy


    Expansion in latin america
    Expansion in Latin America tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Governing Cuba and Puerto Rico

      • Cuba

        • The Platt Amendment

          • Limited Cuba’s freedom under the United States.


    Platt amendment
    Platt Amendment tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • 3 Main Points:

    • Authorized the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs.

    • Limited the ability of Cuba to make treaties.

    • Gave the United States a naval base

      • Guantanamo Bay

    • In all:

      • Cuba was made a U.S. protectorate


    Protectorate
    Protectorate tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • The United States promised to protect Cuba from other nations but reserved the right to intervene in Cuba’s affairs.

      • Last until 1934


    Puerto rico
    Puerto Rico tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • The Foraker Act

      • Allowed U.S. to appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper house of legislation.

      • Lower House – elected by Puerto Ricans


    Puerto rico1
    Puerto Rico tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • The Jones Act of 1917

      • Granted Puerto Ricans the right to elect both houses of their legislature.

      • Granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship

    • Puerto Rico:

      • Commonwealth of the United States


    The panama canal
    The Panama Canal tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Key reasons for the canal:

      • A canal would cut the time in half that it took to travel around the tip of South America

      • This would increase our Navy’s mobility (ability to move quicker) and it would strengthen it by doing so.


    The panama canal1
    The Panama Canal tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Secretary of State John Hay

      • 1903 Treaty

      • Rejected by Colombia

        • United States would have paid:

          • $10 million for the canal

          • $250,000 yearly rental


    President roosevelt
    President Roosevelt tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • In response to Colombia

      • Will not be allowed to “bar one of the future highways of civilization.”


    Revolution
    Revolution tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Phillippe Bunau-Varilla

      • Went to United States to ask for support of the revolution.

      • United States sends U.S. Marines to Panama (Colombia).

      • Revolution begins.

      • U.S. Marines keep Colombian troops from reaching the rebellion.


    Independent panama
    Independent Panama tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • United States recognizes the newly independent Republic of Panama.

    • Two days after their revolution.

    • Secretary of State Hay begins working a treaty.


    The hay bunau varilla treaty
    The Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Gave the United States:

    • Unending Power (sovereignty) over a 10 mile wide Canal Zone.


    Building of the canal
    Building of the Canal tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Beginning 1904

    • Completed August 15, 1914

      • 160 trainloads of earth a day


    Review1
    Review tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • What country did Panama gain its independence from?

    • Who was most influential in gaining Panama its independence?

    • What was the United States’ role in the Panamanian Revolution?

    • Why did the United States get involved in the Panamanian Revolution?

    • What did the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty give to the United States? What do you believe is the most important aspect of the treaty?


    The u s and latin america
    The U.S. and Latin America tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Long history of involvement in Latin America.

    • Wanted to limit the influence of foreign nations in Latin America

      • Latin America

        • South America

        • Caribbean Islands – Cuba; Puerto Rico, etc.

        • “Middle” America


    The monroe doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • President James Monroe

    • Main Idea:

      • The United States is the protector of the Western Hemisphere.


    The dominican republic
    The Dominican Republic tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Unable to pay back debts to Europeans

      • United States concerned

        • Why?

    • United States feared that European countries would forcefully collect their debts and assert control over parts of Latin America.

      • How would this interfere with the Monroe Doctrine?


    The roosevelt corollary
    The Roosevelt Corollary tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

      • Who wrote it?

        • Theodore Roosevelt

      • What was it?

        • United States pledged to use armed forces to prevent any European country from seizing Dominican [ or any other Latin American] territory.

        • WITHOUT CONSENT (permission) OF ANY LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRY


    The roosevelt corollary1
    The Roosevelt Corollary tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • “If a nation… keeps order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United States. Chronic wrongdoing… in the Western Hemisphere… may force the United States, however reluctantly,… to the exercise of an international police power.”


    European reaction u s response
    European Reaction / U.S. Response tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • European countries want their money!

    • What does the United States do?

      • Intervenes in Latin America

      • How?

        • Ex: Dominican Republic

      • What happens?

        • United States sends in marines

      • What do the marines do?

        • Collect customs duties.

    • 1916-1924


    Dollar diplomacy
    Dollar Diplomacy tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • What was it?

      • Use economic, rather than military force in Latin America.

    • Who was behind it?

      • President William H. Taft

    • Main Idea:

      • Replace bullets with dollars.


    Dollar diplomacy in action
    Dollar Diplomacy in Action tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • U.S. banks invest in Latin America

    • How? Through Loans

    • BUT:

      • Nicaragua

        • A shift in government with United States’ investments at stake:

    • Revolt to overthrow government (that United States liked)

    • U.S. intervenes

    • How?

      • Sends marines to protect U.S. interests


    Woodrow wilson
    Woodrow Wilson tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Intervention in Latin America

    • Believed democracy should prevail in Latin America.

    • Democracy would keep European powers out of Latin America.

      • Uses Military to put down revolts against democratic countries in Latin America.

      • Promotes revolts for democracy in undemocratic Latin American countries.

    • Haiti

    • 1915-1934


    Review2
    Review tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • 1. Explain the term Dollar Diplomacy. How was dollar diplomacy put into action?

    • 2. What was the purpose behind the Roosevelt Corollary?

    • 3. How does the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine relate? [consider the goals of each]

    • 4. How was the Roosevelt Corollary put into action?

    • 5. Explain the policy toward Latin America of the following Presidents: Wilson; Roosevelt; Taft.

    • 6. How did the United States appease (calm the nerves of) European investors that were owed money by Latin American countries?

    • 7. Which of the various tactics used by the Presidents is best? Explain/justify your answer.


    Essay question
    Essay Question tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

    • Explain how American Imperialism was consistent with the ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahan. Provide three specific examples of American Imperialism that directly tie into Mahan’s argument and be sure to explain how they relate.


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