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Basidiomycetes. Characteristics: Septate mycelium Basidia and basidiospores Clamp connections. Not all Basidiomycetes produce these, but when a fungus does it will always be a basidiomycete. Basidiomycetes. Characteristics: Two main groups, based on morphology of basidia.

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Basidiomycetes

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Basidiomycetes

Characteristics:

  • Septate mycelium

  • Basidia and basidiospores

  • Clamp connections. Not all Basidiomycetes produce these, but when a fungus does it will always be a basidiomycete.


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Basidiomycetes

Characteristics:

  • Two main groups, based on morphology of basidia.

    • Basidia are septate and deeply lobed

      Order Uredinales – the rusts

      • Produce all five spore stages – aeciospores, uredospores, teliospores, basidiospores and spermatia (aka pycniospores)

      • Important genera – Puccinia, Gymnosporangium

        Order Ustilaginales – the smuts

      • Produce only basidiospores and teliospores

      • Important genera – Ustilago, Tilletia


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Order Uredinales

Order Ustilaginales


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Basidiomycetes

Characteristics:

  • Two main groups, based on morphology of basidia.

    • Basidia are unicellular, non-septate: wood decay fungi

      Order Aphyllophorales (aka Polyporales) – the bracket fungi

      • Hymenium lines small pores on underside of sporophore

      • Important genera – Polyporus, Fomes

        Order Agaricales – the mushrooms

      • Hymenium lines gills (lamellae)

      • Important genera – Armillaria, Agaricus


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Aphyllophorales

Agaricales


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Basidiomycetes

5. Three types of hyphae

  • Primary hyphae – develops from a germinating basidiospore. Nuclear status = n

  • Secondary hypha – results from fusion of two primary hyphae. Yields a n+n cell that continues to grow as a n+n hyphae

  • Tertiary hypha – exactly the same as secondary hypha. n+n However it has thick walls that enable production of fleshy and wood sporophores

Primary hyphae

Primary hyphae

Secondary hyphae

Tertiary hyphae


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The Rusts

These are obligate parasites. Generally these require two host to complete their lifecycle.

Primary hosts – the host on which basidia and basidiospores are produced.

Alternate host – the other host in the life cycle on which spermagonia and aecia are produced

Alternative host – the host that a pathogen can infect in place of the primary or alternate hosts.

Heteroecious – organisms with a primary and alternate host.

Autoecious – organisms that have only a single (primary) host.

Macrocyclic rust – long cycle rust. Produce all 5 spore types.

Demicyclic rust – medium cycle rust. Omits uredia.

Microcyclic rust – short cycle rusts. Produces basidiospores, teliospores and spermatia.


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Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis tritici


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Cedar apple rust, caused by Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianum

lacks the uredia stage = no repeating stage


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The Smuts

Unique characteristics of smuts (vs. rusts)

  • They are not obligate parasites. We can grow them in culture.

  • They show a very high degree of selectivity. They attack not only certain host but certain tissues of the host.

  • Have only tow spore types: basidiospores and teliospores.

    Example: corn smut, caused by Ustilago maydis


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Review

  • Wheat stem rust – all spore types

  • Cedar apple rust – lacks ureida

  • Coffee rust – no aecial stage

  • Smuts – basidiospores + teliospores only


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