Tornadoes
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Tornadoes. Tornado Formation. Severe “Super Cell” Thunderstorm (1% spawn tornadoes) Often occur along cold fronts and move to NE Strong updrafts Wind shear (change in direction or strength of winds from top to bottom of storm). Funnel Cloud v. Tornado. Tornado. Funnel Cloud.

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Tornadoes

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Tornadoes

Tornadoes


Tornado formation

Tornado Formation

  • Severe “Super Cell” Thunderstorm (1% spawn tornadoes)

  • Often occur along cold fronts and move to NE

  • Strong updrafts

  • Wind shear (change in direction or strength of winds from top to bottom of storm)


Funnel cloud v tornado

Funnel Cloud v. Tornado

Tornado

Funnel Cloud


Waterspout over water less power smaller temp gradient

Waterspout- over water - less power- smaller tempgradient


World tornado geography

World Tornado Geography

  • USA: 90%+ of all tornadoes


Usa tornado geography

USA Tornado Geography

  • Every state!

  • Tornado Alley (TX, OK, KS, NE)


Usa tornado season

USA Tornado Season

Most common when temperature gradient in central U.S. is greatest.


Usa tornado occurrence

USA Tornado Occurrence

  • About 800-1000 tornadoes spotted each year.


Tornado classification

Tornado Classification

  • Fujita F-scale

    • F0 (winds < 120 mph) to F5 (winds 200-300+ mph)

    • based on rotational wind speed and damage done

  • Size: Tornadoes generally < 1/4 mile wide (damage path only 150 ft.)


Deadliest tornado

Deadliest Tornado

  • Tri-state tornado outbreak of March 18, 1925

  • Kills 689 people in Missouri, Illinois & Indiana

Largest Tornado Outbreak

  • April 3-4, 1974 Super-Outbreak

  • 148 tornadoes overnight across 11 states


Tornado forecasting

Tornado Forecasting

  • NEXRAD doppler radar (WSR-88D)

    • 138 stations across the USA

  • Intensity of storm noted by amount of reflection off rain, hail, and ice crystals.

  • Hook cloud is an indicator.

Orlando, Florida


Tornado indicators

Tornado Indicators

  • What to look for….


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