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Tornadoes. Tornado Formation. Severe “Super Cell” Thunderstorm (1% spawn tornadoes) Often occur along cold fronts and move to NE Strong updrafts Wind shear (change in direction or strength of winds from top to bottom of storm). Funnel Cloud v. Tornado. Tornado. Funnel Cloud.

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Tornado formation
Tornado Formation

  • Severe “Super Cell” Thunderstorm (1% spawn tornadoes)

  • Often occur along cold fronts and move to NE

  • Strong updrafts

  • Wind shear (change in direction or strength of winds from top to bottom of storm)


Funnel cloud v tornado
Funnel Cloud v. Tornado

Tornado

Funnel Cloud


Waterspout over water less power smaller temp gradient
Waterspout- over water - less power- smaller tempgradient


World tornado geography
World Tornado Geography

  • USA: 90%+ of all tornadoes


Usa tornado geography
USA Tornado Geography

  • Every state!

  • Tornado Alley (TX, OK, KS, NE)


Usa tornado season
USA Tornado Season

Most common when temperature gradient in central U.S. is greatest.


Usa tornado occurrence
USA Tornado Occurrence

  • About 800-1000 tornadoes spotted each year.


Tornado classification
Tornado Classification

  • Fujita F-scale

    • F0 (winds < 120 mph) to F5 (winds 200-300+ mph)

    • based on rotational wind speed and damage done

  • Size: Tornadoes generally < 1/4 mile wide (damage path only 150 ft.)


Deadliest tornado
Deadliest Tornado

  • Tri-state tornado outbreak of March 18, 1925

  • Kills 689 people in Missouri, Illinois & Indiana

Largest Tornado Outbreak

  • April 3-4, 1974 Super-Outbreak

  • 148 tornadoes overnight across 11 states


Tornado forecasting
Tornado Forecasting

  • NEXRAD doppler radar (WSR-88D)

    • 138 stations across the USA

  • Intensity of storm noted by amount of reflection off rain, hail, and ice crystals.

  • Hook cloud is an indicator.

Orlando, Florida


Tornado indicators
Tornado Indicators

  • What to look for….


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