Descriptive research
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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH. ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS. I. The methodology of survey research .

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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

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Descriptive research

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS


I the methodology of survey research

I.The methodology of survey research

  • Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how.


The methodology of survey research

The methodology of survey research

The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation.


Descriptive research

  • Descriptive research influences what television programs we see, the type automobiles that will be produced, the fashion we wear and what issues and topics we will confronted with.

  • In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied.


Survey

Survey

A survey is a data collection tool used to gather information about individuals.

The major purpose of all surveys is to describe the characteristics of a population.

The methodology of conducting a survey involves a series of detailed steps.

The initial step is to define the research problem.


Sampling

A sample is a subset of the population to which the researcher intends to generalize the result.

Sampling


Data collection

Data collection

Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data - for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, to pass information on to others.


Questionnaire surveys

Questionnaire surveys.

Background or demographic information about the respondent is important in that it identifies the individual in terms of classifying variables for the analysis.


Closed ended open ended questions

Closed-ended questions are easy to use, score and code for analysis on a computer.Since all subjects respond to the same options, standardized data are provided. They are somewhat more difficult to write than open-ended questions.

Closed-ended & Open-ended questions

Open-ended questions allow for more individualized responses, but they are sometimes difficult to interpret.They are also hard to score, since so many different kinds of responses are received.


Advantages disadvantages of using closed ended open ended questions

Advantages &disadvantages of using closed-ended &open-ended questions.


Advantages

Advantages

Closed-ended

Open-ended

Allows more freedom of response

Easier to construct

Permits follow-up by interviewer

  • Enhaces consistency of response across respondents

  • Easier & faster to tabulate

  • More popular with respondents


Disadvantages

Disadvantages

Closed-ended

Open-ended

Responses tend to be inconsistent in length and content across respondents

Both questions and responses subject to misinterpretation

Harder to tabulate and synthesize.

  • May limit breadth of responses

  • Takes more time to construct

  • Requires more questions to cover the research topic


The cover letter

The Cover Letter

The cover letter is an essential part of any survey involving a questionnaire.It is the mechanism for introducing individuals to the questionnaire and motivate them to respond.The letter should be straighfoward, explaining the purpose and penitential value of the survey and transmitting the message that an individual’s response is important.


Interview surveys

Interview Surveys

The interview should be structured to obtain the necessary information efficiently in a friendly but businesslike atmosphere. If possible there should be some accuracy checks on the responses.


Descriptive research

Analyzing the result

Survey data can be analyzed using any appropriate procedures, and in many surveys at least part of the results are reported in a descriptive manner.Persentages or proportions of respondents selecting the options for an item are often provided.


References

References

HOW TO DESIGN AND EVALUATE RESEARCH IN EDUCATION

Jack R. Praenkel

Norman E. Wallen

RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION.

William Wiersma

Stephen G.Jurs

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH COMPETENCIES FOR ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS.

L. R. Gay, Geoffrey E. Mills, Peter Airasian

QUESTIONS ABOUT RESEARCH METHODS.

Neil J. Salkind

FUNDAMENTALS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Gary Anderson


Fidan agasiyeva

FidanAgasiyeva

18 October 2011


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