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Part 8. Diapsida. Non-Avian Reptiles. Diapsida (living). Parareptiles. Turtles. Crocodilians. Reptiles. Pterosaurs. Archosaurs. Ornithischian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs. Saurischian dinosaurs other than birds. Diapsids. Saurischians. Birds. Plesiosaurs. ANCESTRAL AMNIOTE.

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Part 8

Diapsida

Non-Avian Reptiles


Diapsida (living)


Parareptiles

Turtles

Crocodilians

Reptiles

Pterosaurs

Archosaurs

Ornithischian

dinosaurs

Dinosaurs

Saurischian

dinosaurs other

than birds

Diapsids

Saurischians

Birds

Plesiosaurs

ANCESTRAL

AMNIOTE

Ichthyosaurs

Tuataras

Lepidosaurs

Squamates

Diapsida (all)


Diapsida (all)


Post-Paleozoic is the age of amniotes


Mesozoic

Age of Reptiles (diapsids)


Diapsid Diversity (all)


Diapsid Diversity (living)


Diapsida

Turtles

Lepidosaurs

Archosaurs

†Other


Diapsida


Diapsida(living)

Turtles


Turtles

Order Testudines (Chelonia)


Turtles

Diapsida (living)


Triassic Turtle – 220 mya

Odontochelys


What’s unique about the turtle line?

Loss of temporal fossae

Primitive Diapsid

Fossil turtle

Anapsid condition


What’s unique about the turtle line?

Shell derived from dermal bone


What’s unique about the turtle line?

Shell derived from dermal bone


What’s unique about the turtle line?

Shell derived from dermal bone


What’s unique about the turtle line?

Loss of teeth (living forms)


Triassic turtles


Diversity and random bits of biology


Sea turtles


Freshwater turtles


Land Tortoises


Endothermy?


Social and courtship behaviors


Reproduction


Migrations


Pets

Trachemys scripta elegans


Conservation


A Ventura County Native

Actinemysmarmorata


Diapsida(living)

Lepidosaurs


Lepidosaurs


Lepidosaurs


Lepidosaurs

Diapsida (living)


What’s unique about lepidosaurs?

Transverse cloaca


What’s unique about lepidosaurs?

skin shed in one piece


Lizards and Snakes

Order Squamata


Squamata

Diapsida (living)


Order Squamata

Lizards and Snakes

Is it really this simple?


Order Squamata

two living lineages

Snakes, monitors

True lizards


What is unique about Squamates?

Hemipeneson males


Kinetic Skull


Suborder Sauria

lizards


Tail regeneration


Australia

Convergent Evolution

Moloch

N. America

Phrynosoma


PhrynosomaHatchling


Ophisaurus

“Glass snakes”


Ophisaurus

regenerated tail


Amphisbaenians


Heloderma

Lizard or snake relative?


CI Natives

Elgaria multicarinata webbii


CI Natives

Sceloporus occidentalis longipes


CI Natives

Utastansburiana


Squamata(Serpentes and relatives)

Diapsida (living)


Monitor “lizards”

Snake relatives


Also possibly not true lizards, but on the snake lineage

Heloderma

Gila monsters


Suborder Serpentes


Extreme specialization towards creeping


Hind limbs on a primitive snake


Lizards have eye lids and ear drums


Snakes don’t


Very flexible (kinetic) skull


Hearing

columella


Pit organ

pit viper


Jacobson’s Organ


Venomous Snakes

Vipers


Copperhead

Agkistrodon contortrix


Some snakes are ovoviviparous


Newborns

baby snakes are cute


Humans and snakes


Texas rattlesnake round up


Texas rattlesnake round up

Texas wildlife abuse


Hibernaculum


CI Natives

Pituophiscateniferannectens


CI Natives

Crotalus oreganus helleri


Lepidosauria– tuataras

Diapsida (living)


Tuatara

Sphenodon spp.


Research and Conservation


Island refuges


Captive breeding


Island refuges allow mainland recovery

2009


Pineal eye


(relatively) unmodified diapsid skull


Archosaurs- living

Diapsida (living)


What’s unique about archosaurs?

inverted triangular orbit

antorbital fenestra

mandibular fenestra

Muscular gizzard


Archosaurs


Archosaurs


Archosaurs(all)


Archosaurs(living)


Living Archosaurs


Crocodilians


Crocodilia


Crocodiles


Alligators


Caimans


Gharial


Diapsidskull

orbit


Negative Pressure breathers


Alligator nest


Alligator hatchlings are adorable


Maternal care


Archosaurs - Birds


Aves

Birds


Amniota - Synapsida


Synapsida


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