Caffeine: Is the Next Problem Already Brewing?
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Caffeine: Is the Next Problem Already Brewing? NIDA-ODS Symposium. Caffeine, Sleep, & Wakefulness: Implications of New Understanding about Withdrawal Reversal. Jack James, PhD School of Psychology National University of Ireland, Galway [[email protected]].

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Caffeine, Sleep, & Wakefulness: Implications of New Understanding about Withdrawal Reversal

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Caffeine sleep wakefulness implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal

Caffeine: Is the Next Problem Already Brewing?

NIDA-ODS Symposium

Caffeine, Sleep, & Wakefulness: Implications of New Understanding about Withdrawal Reversal

Jack James, PhD

School of Psychology

National University of Ireland, Galway

[[email protected]]

Neuroscience Center Rockville, Maryland

July 2009


Caffeine sleep wakefulness implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal

“A health advice service has been set up as part of a Health Board drug prevention initiative.”

Health Board Café

for young people:

Learn About the Dangers of Drugs as You Relax with a Coffee!


Caffeine sleep wakefulness implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal

Common Beliefs & Claims about Caffeine

  • Enhances performance & mood.

  • Encourages wakefulness.


Caffeine withdrawal withdrawal reversal

Caffeine Withdrawal & Withdrawal Reversal

Degraded due to overnight caffeine abstinence.

Restoration to “normal” after caffeine.

Placebo

Caffeine

Performance & Mood

Baseline

Challenge

James, J. E. (1994). Neuropsychobiology, 30, 124-125.


Withdrawal reversal hypothesis

Withdrawal Reversal Hypothesis

Caffeine abstinence negatively affects performance & mood, which are restored (withdrawal reversal) when caffeine is next ingested.


Caffeine sleep wakefulness implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0

Dietary Caffeine Concentration Time Course

Caffeine dose

Plasma caffeine (µg/ml)

Morning

24 hours

Time


Main research design options for controlling confounding due to withdrawal relief

Main Research Design Options for Controlling Confounding Due to Withdrawal Relief

Consumers versus low/non-consumers.

Pre-treatment or ad lib consumptions.

Long-term withdrawal.


Research design controlling for withdrawal reversal

Research Design: Controlling for Withdrawal Reversal

‘Run-in’‘Challenge’

(1-6 days)(7th day) Condition

placebo

caffeine

placebo

caffeine

‘caffeine abstinent’

‘acute challenge’

‘withdrawal’

‘dietary use’

placebo

placebo

caffeine

caffeine

James, J. E., & Rogers, P. J. (2005). Psychopharmacology, 182, 1-8.


Caffeine sleep wakefulness

Caffeine, Sleep & Wakefulness

  • Caffeine, sleep & driving

  • Caffeine use in military operations

  • Restorative effects of caffeine, naps & bright light.

James, J. E. & Keane, M. A. (2007).Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental, 22, 549-558.


Caffeine sleep wakefulness implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal

Adolescent Caffeine Use: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)[Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis (ICSRA), Reykjavik]

Mother’s education

Father’s education

CFI = .955

RMSEA = .044

Family structure

Parental education

Gender

r2 = .06

Smoking

Licit substances

Alcohol use

.34

Reading

Watching TV

-.30

Icelandic

Sitting inactive

Talking

Sleepiness

Math

-.16

Passenger car moving

Passenger stationary

Academic achievement

English

r2 = .12

Lay down to rest

After a meal

r2 = .19

Danish


Caffeine sleep wakefulness implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal

Adolescent Caffeine Use: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)[Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis (ICSRA), Reykjavik]

Mother’s education

Father’s education

CFI = .955/.950

RMSEA = .044/.040

Family structure

Parental education

Gender

Coffee

Tea

r2 = .06/.23

Caffeine use

Smoking

Cola drinks

.44

Smoking & alcohol

Alcohol use

Energy drinks

.17

-.28

.34/.26

Reading

Watching TV

-.30/-.19

Icelandic

Sitting inactive

Talking

Sleepiness

Math

-.16/-.12

Passenger car moving

Passenger stationary

Academic achievement

English

r2 = .12/.14

Lay down to rest

After a meal

r2 = .19/.25

Danish


Summary of main findings caffeine sleep wakefulness

Summary of Main Findings: Caffeine, Sleep & Wakefulness

  • Sleep restriction has adverse effects on aspects of performance and mood.

  • After controlling for withdrawal reversal, dietary caffeine has

    • Little or no net gains for performance or mood.

    • Little or no restorative effects (following sleep loss) for performance or mood.

    • May exacerbate the negative effects of sleep loss.

James, J. E. (1998). Neuropsychobiology, 38, 32-41.

James, J. E. & Gregg, M. E. (2004). Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental, 19, 333-341.

Keane, M. A., James, J. E., & Hogan, M. J. (2007). Neuropsychobiology, 56, 197-207.

Keane, M. A., & James, J. E. (2008). Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental, 23, 669-680. 

  • Inference

    • Rather than enhancing “alertness” & “arousal”, a main biobehavioral effect of caffeine may be to disrupt sleep & attentional processes (previously masked by failure to control for withdrawal reversal).


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