Water Quality Sensing
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Water Quality Sensing. Dr. Eric DeCarlo, Professor Marine Geology and Geochemistry Division Dr. Grieg Steward, Associate Professor Biological Oceanography Division Dr. Margaret McManus, Associate Professor Physical Oceanography Division Department of Oceanography

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Dr. Eric DeCarlo, Professor Marine Geology and Geochemistry Division

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Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

Water Quality Sensing

Dr. Eric DeCarlo, Professor

Marine Geology and Geochemistry Division

Dr. Grieg Steward, Associate Professor

Biological Oceanography Division

Dr. Margaret McManus, Associate Professor

Physical Oceanography Division

Department of Oceanography

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST)

University of Hawaii at Manoa

7 July 2009


Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

Water Quality Sensing

The economic well-being of the State of Hawaii depends upon healthy coastal ecosystems.

Public confidence in water quality and safety is crucial.

Many current monitoring approaches are labor intensive and slow.

Our integrated coastal sensor/ocean observing system will:

Boost public confidence by emphasizing the usually high quality of Hawaii’s coastal waters.

Contribute to public safety by providing early warning of water quality problems and forecasting areas likely to be affected.


Water quality sensor locations

Water Quality Sensor Locations

NS-03

NS-04

University of Hawaii at Manoa

Moana Surfrider


Outline

Outline

Near Shore Water Quality Sensors

Water Quality Buoys

Pathogen Sampling

The Future


Near shore water quality sensors

Near ShoreWater Quality Sensors


Sensors

Sensors


Data flow diagram

Data Flow Diagram

Data Flow Diagram


Status

Status


Water quality buoys

Water Quality Buoys


Sensors1

Sensors


Status1

Status


Data flow diagram1

Data Flow Diagram

Data Flow Diagram


Early warning system alert

Early Warning System Alert

  • Matlab code on SOEST server

  • Automatic, hourly threshold checks

  • NS01, NS02 – salinity and temperature

  • USGS – rainfall, stream height, stream flow

  • If threshold is exceeded, the program sends text message to

  • Members of the Ala Wai Research Group

  • cell phone or emails (depending on choice)

  • Triggers sampling alert

  • Other hourly checks (sends alerts if web sites are down)


Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

Early Warning System Alert

Title: EVENT ALERT

Body: Manoa rainfall is currently 0.6ft.” or “NSO1 Salinity is

15 PSU.”

If multiple thresholds are exceeded, the message adjusts to

include all of the values, i.e. “Manoa rainfall is currently 0.6ft,

NS01 Salinity is 15 PSU and NS02 Salinity is 18 PSU.”


What about pathogens

What about Pathogens?

  • Current sensors great for monitoring chemical and physical properties of the water

  • A major issue for coastal recreational water users is the presence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses


The dream

Pathogens

The Dream

Temp. (°C)

Salinity

Chlorophyll

Turbidity


The reality

The Reality

  • No off-the-shelf sensors yet available for pathogen detection in seawater

  • Conventional methods are labor-intensive, slow


The reality1

The Reality


Cultivation based assays

Cultivation-Based Assays

Labor-intensive

Hours to days


Molecular direct detection methods

Molecular & Direct Detection Methods

  • Molecular - extract DNA, use tools to detect specific genes of interest

  • Direct Detection - Capture pathogenic viruses or bacteria on a sensor surface


Molecular methods lab in a can lab on a chip

Molecular MethodsLab in a can & Lab on a chip

Expensive, complicated

High maintenance

Environmental Sample Processor (MBARI)


Direct capture

Direct Capture

Pathogens

Specific Antibodies


Sensing the capture

Sensing the Capture

Surface Plasmon

Resonance

Quartz Crystal

Microbalance

http://www.biosensors.pan.olsztyn.pl/images/stories/reserearchprofile/qcm-2.jpg

http://spie.org/Images/Graphics/Newsroom/Imported/0882/0882_fig1.jpg


The challenges for automation

The Challenges for Automation

  • Biofouling

  • What are we looking for? Too many potential pathogens to screen for all of them

  • The needle in a haystack


Biofouling

Biofouling

www.d-a-instruments.com/images/


What are we looking for

What are we looking for?

  • Sewage Pathogens

    • There are many possible pathogens, usually present at low levels

    • Indicator organisms, not pathogenic, but more abundant and come from the same source (e.g., enterococci as indicators of sewage)

  • Non-sewage pathogens: some pathogens are not pollutants


Sewage indicator water quality vs rainfall

Sewage IndicatorWater quality vs. Rainfall

Exceedance data calculated from Dept of Health, Clean Water Branch web site


Water quality when it rains it s poor

Water QualityWhen it rains, it’s Poor


Enterococci not a reliable indicator

EnterococciNot a Reliable Indicator

Data from Dept of Health, Clean Water Branch


Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

The Needle in the Haystack

  • Pathogens are a tiny fraction of the microbes in seawater

  • Outnumbered by “good” microbes by a millions or billions to one


The future for pathogens

The Future (for Pathogens)

  • Pathogen sensors are under development, but there are hurdles to routine deployment

  • In the meantime, the abundance of non-sewage pathogens, like vibrios, may be predictable using data from existing sensors and predictive models.


Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

The Future

(Automated Water Quality Sensors)

  • You could also go into our plans for water quality deployments in the Pacific region and illustrate the potential linkage to the instruments Rusty has out with CRED

  • CRED is backbone of ecological

  • Part of IOOS future

Installation of water quality

monitoring systems

in each of the

PacIOOS jurisdictions.


Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

The Future

Partnership: Coral Reef Ecosystem Division

  • You could also go into our plans for water quality deployments in the Pacific region and illustrate the potential linkage to the instruments Rusty has out with CRED

  • CRED is backbone of ecological

  • Part of IOOS future

CRED study areas:

Ecosystem Observations

~50 islands & atolls


Dr eric decarlo professor marine geology and geochemistry division

March of 2006

375,000 gallons of raw sewage were diverted into the Ala Wai canal when a sewer main in Honolulu cracked after several days of heavy rain.

Several people who came into contact with the contaminated water became ill, and there have been suggestions that one death resulted from the incident.

For several weeks after the incident, it was unclear (1) if there were harmful bacteria in our nearshore waters as a result of the diversion, (2) if the nearshore circulation patterns were retaining Ala Wai waters nearshore.

Without an idea of the baseline biological and physical conditions in the Ala Wai and adjacent coastal waters, it was impossible to determine when and if the system had returned to baseline

An Example of the Problem


Ala wai research group

Ala Wai Research Group

  • Members include:

    • Drs. Geno Pawlak and Sergio Jaramillo, Ms Jennifer Patterson (Ocean Resource Engineering UH Manoa)

    • Drs. Margaret McManus, Eric DeCarlo, and Grieg Steward, Mr. Ross Timmerman, Mr. Mike Tomlinson, and Ms. Olivia Nigro (Oceanography UH Manoa)

    • Dr. Marc Ericksen and Mr. Andrew Rocheleau (Sea Engineering)

    • Army Corps of Engineers (CH2M Hill Lisa Kettley)

    • USGS - invited

  • Regular Conference calls/workshops 3 times/year

  • Linked by ALERT system

  • Coordinated physical and biological sampling


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