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Prof. dr. Marija Todorovic DERES - DIVISION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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E N E R G Y S U P P L Y MICRO AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND TRIGENERATION II LONG HISTORY OF COGENERATION IN THE WORLD PAYS OFF. Prof. dr. Marija Todorovic DERES - DIVISION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Serbia

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Prof. dr. Marija Todorovic DERES - DIVISION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

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Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

E N E R G Y S U P P L Y

MICRO AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

AND TRIGENERATION II

LONG HISTORY OF COGENERATION IN THE WORLD PAYS OFF

Prof. dr. Marija Todorovic

DERES - DIVISION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Serbia

[email protected], [email protected]

www.rcub.bg.ac.yu/deres

2006 6th November


Aim of this lecture

Its aim is to provide an understanding of how social, political, economical, geographycal and climatic conditions as well as regional resources, living style, science and awarness on environmental issues influence CHP,

micro and distributed generation and

trigeneration

technologies development

AIM OF THIS LECTURE


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

History

Eastern and Western Europe

Pay-off and Near Future Prospects

Monetary and Ecologically

Security of energy supply and general social

Resources conservation by the energy

efficiency improvement and RESutilisation

People health and living

Contributes to approach sustainability

Ethics of Sustainability


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Policy

Local heating/cooling supply policy

Benefits for the consumers

Use of local fuels

Economical benefits

Labor cost

Productivity International energy and environmental policy

National energy

Working hours

High technology – Development of new products

COGENERATION ASPECTS OF


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

100 YEARS HYSTORY OF COGENERATION AND DISTRICT HEATING IN EUROPE

The year 1903 is the birth of DH and CHP year in Russia, when based on prof. Dimitriev and engineer Ginter design constructed Heating System for the Prince Oldenbourg’s children hospital had been connected to the two steam turbines at the local Electricity Station.

The other - after revolution place “birth” of CHP /District Heating is Saint Peterbourg 1924 when the first vapour pipeline was opened of the state electrical power plant towards Building 95 near river Fontanka.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

STAGES OF ENERGY/URBAN DEVELOPMENT WERE CHARACTERIZED AS FOLLOWS:

1903-1917 Study and development of different schemes of DH heating systems

1924-1931 Construction of largerDH systems for heating buildings and industrial facilities/plants

1931-1950 Construction of CHP plants in big industrial centers

1950-1975 Very intensive development of construction industry and spreading of DH systems in cities and industrial centers

1975-1990 Decreasing construction of CHP systems


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

PRODUCED ELECTRICAL ENERGY PER YEAR

BY THE CHP SYSTEMS IN FSU

1 - TOTAL; 2 - ELECTRICAL MAIN UTILITIES


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

2000 Forming a new conception of DH and CHP development changing orientation from the dominant role of central DH/CHP systems to the combination of central powerful and small systems.

Study on the CHP based on Nuclear energy had been stopped after Chernobyl accident.

Recently has been initiated continuation on the study of the “inherently safe” nuclear CHP systems for the DH of power 300 MW.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

THE WORLD ENERGY CRISIS 1973 ROLE

The world energy crisis 1973 stopped many western countries in their “chaotic” development of energetique, which lead them to numerous homes with autonomous boilers fueledwith oil to supply heat or heated using electrical energy.

Based on mainly the Eastern European experience they began conversion to wider utilization of DH and central CHP systems – using locally available energy resources proceeding with adequate state regulative and laws.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

LARGEST DH/CHP SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD

CityPJGWh Heat/Year

St.Petersburg23766,000

Moscow150 42,000

Prague 54 15,000

Warsaw 38.2 10,600

Bucharest36.7 10,197

Seoul 36 10,000

Berlin 33 9,247

Copenhagen30 8,000

New York City, Stockholm, Helsinki, Hamburg, Paris, Göteborg, Reykjavík, Krakow, Katowice, Gdansk, Tampere, Finland, Indianapolis, Gdynia, Philadelphia, Detroit


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

New Development - Business center of 105.000 m2.

CHP - 4 engines of 1,4 MW = 5,6 MW Electrical power

and total 6,8 MW Thermal power

3 Gas boilers of 9 MW - total 27 MW

3 Absorption cooling units of 0,67 MW = 2,0 MW

Mostransgaz Business Center Moscow


Godi nji toplotni konzum

Godišnji toplotni konzum

MOSTRANSGAZ BCenter HEATING ENERGY USE


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

MOSTRANSGAZ BCenter GAS USE


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Frederiksbourg

1903


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

SUPPLY SUBSIDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY FUELS

1950 and 1960 DH supply extended to most of the country's large cities.

Oil crises in 1973-74 formulation of the energy policy to reduce the approx. 100% dependency on oil.

Energy Research Programme (ERP) in 1976 support energy R&D in EnEff. and decrease the environmental impact of energy production.

The law on heat supply took effect in 1979 - 50% of about 700,000 existing DH systems targeted use CHP heat, biomass and DE systems, developing North Sea gas distribution system and preaparing for the CHP.

In 1981, the Development Programme for Renewable Energy (DPRE) supplemented RES.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

CONVERSION TOWARDS CHP - POLITICAL WILL & ETICS

The 1986 Agreement on CHP became a major energy policy priority based on the technology of matured small CHP installations driven by natural gas, the political focus on the economic consequences of high energy prices, there was a need for new power capacity.

The amendment to the law on heat supply in 1990, a new planning system –“project system” was developed - promoting expansion of decentralized CHP through:

- conversion of existing installations to CHP

- conversion from coal and oil to natural gas

- increased use of environmentally friendly RES.

After more than 20 yearsof such support, many environmentally friendly technologies and fuel installations became so technologically and commercially mature that they no longer required subsidizing and in 2002 the Finance Act discontinued the DPRE's subsidy system.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

DISTRICT HEATING PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF PRODUCER (DK)


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

FINLAND

Though over 30% of the electricity generated is CHP-based, it is not the consequence of specific political action, exept governmental support for CHP within well-funded research programme.

The reason is more due to an absence of barriers; the fact that CHP is recognised as being the most economic means of generating electricity; that there is a greater acceptance of longer payback periods and; finally, that heating demand is high. One has to keep in mind that almost all CHP is in industry or District Heating.

Plentiful availability of wood biomass and extensive use of peat as energy sources.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

FINLAND


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

EU & GLOBAL BENEFITS OF COGENERATION

Increased efficiency of energy conversion and use

More decentralised form of electricity generation

Improved local and general security of supply

More employment - EU formulated in 1997 a strategy to promote CHP with a target of doubling the use of co-generation to 18% of EU electricity production by 2010, avoiding CO2 emissions of more than 65 Mt CO2 per year.

Kyoto single biggest challenge

Cogeneration is one of the most cost effective solutions in DE generation and one of the major solutions to the undeveloped countries electrification

Short term, medium and long term vision

and interests affecting the market


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Current EU CHP SituationPercentage of total electricity generation in 1999

Sources: Eurostat, COGEN Europe, Cogena


Chp electricity production variation

1994-1997 1997-1999

Austria43,6-15,8

Finland16,4 6,7

Germany23,9 6,6

Italy-2,42 24,0

Netherlands -34,9 2,9

Sweden -1,74 0,5

Total 5,5 2,8

CHP electricity production variation


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

…cause weather extremes and damages worth billions of Euros.

Source: Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft

Climate

change


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECTING

SOUTHERN EUROPE

  • The balance of impacts of climate change will be morenegative in southern than in northern Europe - warming of climate is greatest over southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece,...)

  • Severe implications for forest fire occurrence and for human health…, risk of water shortage is projected to increase…

  • In coastal areas the risk of flooding, erosion and wetland loss will increase substantially with implications for human settlement, industry, tourism, agriculture and coastal natural habitats,...


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Trigeneration at the heart of Europe –

Berlaymont

Also the German, Finnish, Danish,

Irish and Dutch parliaments


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

EU SEARCHING INSTRUMENTS

Deregulation, Re-regulation, Liberalisation and Privatisation

Deregulation leads to chaos!

All markets need regulation so re-regulation is necessary, from state owned to new structures

Privatisation is the ultimate result of liberalisation as state owned companies will struggle in a truly open market

Liberalisation is just a process and needs to be framed correctly


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Liberalisation

Allows new entrants, greater transparency, less discrimination on top-up and emergency supplies

Uncertainties remain

Must be correctly regulated and framed

Directive on CHP = progress but compromises...

Globally positive, in particular for DH and CHP

Needed coordinated policies at the EU and Member State level. Action Plan is essential and urgent at the EU level and National Plans and Strategies need to be developed.


Chp energy outlook to 2020

CHP - Energy Outlook to 2020

Source: Primes, (Autumn 1999): CHP electricity production, share of total generation


General information

Directive draft proposal by the Commission to the Council of EU and to the European Parliament (29th of July 2002)

Draft proposal consists of:

Explanatory Memorandum (30 pages)

Main body of the Directive (18 article and four Annexes)

GENERAL INFORMATION


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

PURPOSE

The purpose of this Directive is to increase energy efficiency and improve security of supply by creating a framework for promotion and development of high efficiency cogeneration of heat and power based on useful heat demand and primary energy savings in the internal energy market, taking into account the specific national circumstances especially concerning climatic and economic conditions.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

ANNEXES

Electricity grid system and tariff issues

Guarantee of origin of electricity from high efficiency cogeneration

Cogeneration technologies covered by the DirectiveDefinition of electricity from cogeneration

Criteria for analysis of national potentialsfor high-efficiency cogeneration


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

RECENT DEVELOPMENT

The Directive published in the OJ of EU in 11/2/04

The MS have two years to implement the Directive into their legal framework

A ‘Comitology’, under the supervision of Commission,

is working to propose ‘reference values for separate

heat and power production’.

End of the work: February 2006

The Greek Ministry for Development set up a

committee to implement the Directive in the Greek

energy legal system. End of the Committee: March

2006


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

EU Cogen Conclusions

CHP is the perfect tool for clean decentralised energy services

Single largest contributor to cutting CO2

Costs are neutral as well

Uncertainties in EU remain but, if set in the right framework, liberalisation will have a positive impact

Market potential is huge>30% of electricity supply is ecomonic today


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

HYATT REGENCY AND INTERCONTINETAL HOTEL

BELGRADE


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

A guarantee of electricity from high efficiency cogeneration origin shall:

specify the lower calorific value of the fuel source from which the electricity was produced, specify the use of the heat generated together with the electricity and finally specify the dates and places of production.

specify the quantity of electricity from high efficiency cogeneration that the guarantee represents.

specify the primary energy savings calculated based on harmonised reference values established by the Commission.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Ann. I: Cogeneration technologies covered by the Directive

A. Combined cycle gas turbine with heat recovery

B. Steam backpressure turbine

C. Steam condensing extraction turbine

D. Gas turbine with heat recovery

E. Internal combustion engine

F. Micro turbines

G. Stirling engines

H. Fuel cells

I. Steam engines

J. Organic Ranking cycles

Any other type of technology or combination

thereof falling under the def. in Article 3 a.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

  • ANNEX IV: CRTERIA FOR ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL POTENTIALSFOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY COGENERATION

  • The analysis of national potentials shall consider

  • The typeof fuels

  • The type of cogeneration technologies

  • The type of separate production of heat and

  • electricity

  • A division of the potential into modernisation

  • of existing capacity and construction of new

  • capacity.


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Cogeneration Project Development GuideDeveloping and Implementing Biomass, Clean Coal and Natural Gas Cogeneration Projects in ASEAN


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

BIOMASS ENERGY


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

LANDFIELD GAS AND

WASTES UTILIZATION


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

Miniaturization - Micro

CAT systems

Distributed energy systems

for intelligent buildings


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

SOLAR ENERGY


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

INEXTRICABLE LINKAGE

RES, REM, EnEfficiency and Sustainable Development

All level regular and vacational Education,Engineering Experience (Designing, Construction, LCCommisioning and Operation)

Most current knowledge and technologies and Mental awarness/Ethics of Sustainability

Cost effectiveness/harmonization of

- Dynamics of final energy user’s loads

- Dynamics of Co/Trigeneration efficiency

- Dynamics of technically available RES fluxes

Small specific energy fluxes and Distributed character of RES versus Distributed Co/Trigeneration


Prof dr marija todorovic deres division for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources

INSTEAD OF CONCLUSIONS

Internalisation of a Environmental and Sustainability Costs and benefit values.

Taking the environmental benefits into consideration and linking the environmental goals to those of implementing a competitive and efficient market would guide decision makingtowards sustainability.

Fundamental difference between decisions and approaches grounded in discretionary pursuit of self-interest, and those based on commitment to sustainability intrinsic standards.

Sustainability ethically sanctioned approaches, at each level and in each domain, can help to properly govern the complex nature content of the challenges sustainability is faced with.


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