Pneumonia in children: Management and complications. Pierre Goussard , Robert Gie Tygerberg Children`s Hospital and Stellenbosch University. 6 month old girl presents with cough and respiratory distress. Pneumonia is the single greatest cause of death in children worldwide .
Pierre Goussard , Robert Gie
Tygerberg Children`s Hospital and Stellenbosch University
S. pneumoniae as the most common documented bacterial pathogen, occurring in 4%–44% of all children
WHO defines pneumonia primarily as cough or difficult breathing and age-adjusted tachypnea: (age 2–11 months, RR > 50/min; 1–5 years, RR > 40/min; >5 years, >20 breaths/min)
HIV-infected children requiring hospitalisation may have pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
In children with pneumonia, the increasing resistance of pneumococcus to penicillin can be overcome by giving a higher dose of amoxicillin.
Vitamin A should not be given to children with acute pneumonia unless this is measles associated
(1) pleural fluid LDH/plasma LDH>0.6 of
pleural >200 IU/l,
(2) pleural fluid protein/plasma protein
(3) glucose levels <60 mg/d
abutting the necrotised lung
Sawicki GS. Eur Respir J 2008:31:1285-1291
Resistant gram neg orgs
Resistant staph aureus
Group B strep
Gram nag orgs