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IPM for Right-of-Way Vegetation Management. Tom A. Royer IPM Coordinator and Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Vegetation Management Association Conference and Trade Show. IPM? IVM? What’s the Difference.

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ipm for right of way vegetation management
IPM for Right-of-Way Vegetation Management

Tom A. RoyerIPM Coordinator and Extension EntomologistOklahoma State University

Oklahoma Vegetation Management Association Conference and Trade Show

ipm ivm what s the difference
IPM? IVM? What’s the Difference
  • In rights-of-way (ROW), the primary pest management concern is vegetation
  • IVM uses all the principles of IPM (comprehensive, economical, environmentally responsible) to manage non-compatible vegetation
row targets
ROW Targets
  • \'Non-compatible vegetation\' include tree species and noxious/invasive species that will impact ROW or adjacent properties
  • It does not mean total vegetation management
  • It does try to maintain a plant community that is least disruptive to wildlife, fisheries and human activity
ivm goals
IVM Goals
  • ‘Managed succession’ to develop tree-resistant, sustainable plant communities
  • Impact target vegetation without injuring desirable vegetation - maintain cover
  • Accomplish with minimal $
ivm management techniques
IVM Management Techniques
  • Identify plant, life cycle, habitat
  • Combine IVM methods
    • Cultural
    • Biological
    • Ecological
    • Mechanical
    • Chemical
cultural
Cultural
  • Competitive, native plants
    • highly desired
    • plant succession force
    • naturally perpetuating wildflower meadow (rare in eastern OK, common in western OK)
    • need research to identify desirable species
biological methods
Biological Methods
  • Insects (thistle weevil)
  • Pathogens - Myrothecium verrucaria
  • Grazing animals (geese, goats, live mowers)
  • Competitive/compatible plants
classical biological control
Classical Biological Control
  • Limited to high-impact species, usually exotic and invasive
    • Purple loosestrife
    • Musk thistle
    • Salt Cedar
    • Field Bindweed

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Archives , Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, www.invasive.org

ecological control
Ecological Control
  • Overlap of Cultural and Biological control concepts
  • Programmed release of compatible plant species to provide a competitive plant community to inhibit spread of non-compatible plant species
mechanical methods
Mechanical Methods
  • Necessary in ‘reclamation’ situations
  • Expensive
  • Non-selective - all vegetation impacted
  • Doesn’t change plant community - mowed brush comes back as brush
  • Habitat impacts
chemical methods
Chemical Methods

Herbicide - chemical that is used to control, suppress or kill non-compatible plants (weeds).

implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 2005
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
  • Setting Objectives
  • Compiling Treatment Options
  • Accounting for Economic and Environmental Effects
  • Implementation
  • Adaptive Management and Monitoring
herbicides
Herbicides
  • Selective or non-selective products
  • Application method can determine selectivity
  • Can promote release of native plants through selective (physiological, or application) approaches
  • Less costly than other VM methods
  • Usually provides longer control
herbicide disadvantages
Herbicide Disadvantages
  • Require application by certified personnel, require compliance with aspects of the Right to Know act.
  • They kill plants, and can cause problems with non-target plants via drift.
    • Weaken them, allowing for diseases and insects to gain a foothold.
herbicide drift can weaken trees and make them susceptible to borers and disease
Herbicide Drift Can Weaken Trees and Make Them Susceptible to Borers and Disease
  • Borers
    • Flatheaded wood borers
    • Roundheaded wood borers
    • Clearwinged borers
    • Ambrosia beetles and other bark beetles
herbicide drift can weaken trees and make them susceptible to borers and disease1
Herbicide Drift Can Weaken Trees and Make Them Susceptible to Borers and Disease
  • Borers
    • Flatheaded wood borers
    • Roundheaded wood borers
    • Clearwinged borers
    • Ambrosia beetles and other bark beetles
emerald ash borer
Emerald Ash Borer
  • Flatheaded borers
    • Emerald ash borer* adult about ½ inch, dark metallic green
    • Introduced from Asia, kills living ash trees, seems to be limited to ash as a host.
shade tree insect management
Shade Tree Insect Management
  • Emerald Ash Borer
    • Damage is first recognized by dieback of upper third of tree, followed by full death, or abundance of suckering at base of tree.
    • Beetle activity causes galleries, and girdling of tree.
shade tree insect management1
Shade Tree Insect Management
  • Emerald Ash Borer:
    • Two issues: EAB is spreading rapidly.
    • Firewood quarantine is in place, but how well is it being enforced?
shade tree insect management2
Shade Tree Insect Management
  • Round-headed borers
    • Asian Longhorned beetle
      • Arrived in US from packing material in Chinese imports (pallets)
      • Size 1-1 ¼ inches, with long antennae
      • Lay eggs in oval pits that the female creates. 1 generation per year
      • Larvae feed on inner bark, then move to heartwood.
      • Attacks healthy maples, poplars, willows etc. Prefer maples.
shade tree insect management3
Shade Tree Insect Management
  • Ambrosia bark beetle
    • Biology:
      • Adults can be active year-round during warm periods, but most activity has been observed in spring.
      • They mate, lay eggs and rear young within the galleries excavated by the female. Prefer 2-30 cm diameter stems.
shade tree insect management4
Shade Tree Insect Management
  • Ambrosia bark beetle
    • Biology:
      • All life stages can be found inside the galleries. Females can fly to other trees, males cannot fly.
      • Will feed on pecan, plum cherry persimmon, redbud sweet gum and others.
      • Several generations per year.
shade tree insect management5
Shade Tree Insect Management
  • Ambrosia bark beetle
    • Damage
      • Adults and larvae bore into twigs, branches and small trunks of woody hosts. They excavate a system of tunnels, and begin culturing an ambrosia fungus for food.
      • Girdle infested wood, make toothpick-like spines of sawdust that protrude from host.
ivm practitioners can be first responders
IVM Practitioners can be first responders!
  • As they apply and assess their IVM programs, they are in a critical position to become first detectors for invasives!
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20051
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20052
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
    • You need to know what is going to be involved with the plant community and note any ecologically sensitive conditions that need to be accounted for
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20053
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
  • Setting Objectives
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20054
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Setting Objectives:
    • Be transparent with stakeholders
      • Explain need for keeping vegetation from contact with power line
    • Objectives should be compatible with type of vegetation, location, plant ecosystem and population density of people.
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20055
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
  • Setting Objectives
  • Compiling Treatment Options (building a play book)
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20056
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Compiling Treatment Options
    • Should reflect accurate assessment of plant ecosystem and other objectives
    • Should include as many options as is economically feasible, especially in ecologically sensitive areas
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20057
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
  • Setting Objectives
  • Compiling Treatment Options
  • Accounting for Economic and Environmental Effects
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20058
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Accounting for Economic and Environmental Effects
    • Should get from stakeholder buy-in as well as from research on regulations and needs of area.
implementing an ivm program nowak and ballard 20059
Implementing an IVM program(Nowak and Ballard, 2005)
  • Assessing Species Composition and Ecosystem characteristics
  • Setting Objectives
  • Compiling Treatment Options
  • Accounting for Economic and Environmental Effects
  • Implementation
resources for learning more
Resources for Learning More………
  • Aboriculture and Urban Forestry online http://joa.isa-arbor.com/
  • Walvatne, Paul (ed.). 1996. How to Develop and Implement an Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management Program. The National Roadside Vegetation Management Association, Newark, Delaware.
  • National Roadside Vegetation Management Association http://www.nrvma.org/offers certification information affiliation with state associations.
  • Oklahoma Vegetation Management Association http://www.okvma.net/demo/ A great source for information, opportunities for professional development
ipm for right of way vegetation management1
IPM for Right-of-Way Vegetation Management

Tom A. RoyerIPM Coordinator and Extension EntomologistOklahoma State University

Oklahoma Vegetation Management Association Conference and Trade Show

ipm for right of way vegetation management2
IPM for Right-of-Way Vegetation Management

Tom A. RoyerIPM Coordinator and Extension EntomologistOklahoma State University

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