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The Economics of European Integration. Chapter 5. Essential Economics of Preferential Liberalisation. The PTA Diagram. Studying European integrations, e.g. EEC’s customs union – which were discriminatory, i.e. preferential, requires: at least three countries:

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Essential Economics of Preferential Liberalisation

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Essential economics of preferential liberalisation

The Economics of European Integration

Chapter 5

Essential Economics of Preferential Liberalisation


The pta diagram

The PTA Diagram

  • Studying European integrations, e.g. EEC’s customs union – which were discriminatory, i.e. preferential, requires:

    • at least three countries:

      • at least two integrating nations

      • at least one excluded nation

    • ability to track domestic and international consequences of liberalisation.

  • Must MD-MS diagram to allow for two sources of imports.


The pta diagram free trade eq m

The PTA Diagram: Free Trade eq’m


Discriminatory unilateral liberalisation

Discriminatory, Unilateral Liberalisation

  • To build up to analysis of real-world policy changes (e.g. customs union):

    • consider home removes T on imports only from partner.

  • First step is to construct the new MS curve:

    • the liberalisation shifts up MS (as with MFN liberalisation) but not as far since only on half of imports (shifts up MS to half way between MS (free trade) and MS (MFN T)

    • but more complex, kinked MS curve with PTA.


The pta diagram mfn tariff eq m

The PTA Diagram: MFN Tariff eq’m


Discriminatory unilateral liberalisation1

Discriminatory, Unilateral Liberalisation

Border price

Border price

Domestic price

Partner

MSMFN

RoW

Home

MSPTA

XSP

MS

XSR

P’

P”

P”

T

P’-T

P”-T

Pa

1

T

MD

p*

Partner

Exports

RoW

Exports

Home

imports

M’

XP’

XP”

M”

XR”

XR’


Domestic price and border price changes

Domestic Price and Border Price Changes

  • Domestic price falls to P’ from P”.

  • Partner-based firms see border price rise, P’-T to P”.

  • RoW firms see border price fall from P’-T to P”-T.

Border price

Border price

Domestic price

MSMFN

XSP

XSR

MSPTA

MS

P’

P”

P”

T

P’-T

P’-T

P”-T

MD

XR”

XR’

XP’

XP”

M’

M”

Home

imports

Partner

Exports

RoW

Exports


Quantity changes supply switching

Border price

Border price

Domestic price

MSMFN

XSP

XSR

MSPTA

MS

P’

P”

P”

T

P’-T

P’-T

P”-T

MD

XR”

XR’

XP’

XP”

M’

M”

Home

imports

Partner

Exports

RoW

Exports

Quantity Changes: Supply Switching

  • RoW exports fall.

  • Partner exports rise more than RoW exports fall.

  • Therefore domestic imports rise.


Welfare effects

Welfare Effects

  • Home’s net change = A+B-C.

  • Partner’s net change = +D.

  • RoW’s net change = -E.


Impact of customs union formation

Impact of Customs Union Formation


The great debate is trade discrimination good or bad

The great debate – is trade discrimination good or bad ?

  • Accepted ”truth”: economic integration increases welfare. Free trade is optimal, and FTAs/CUs in fact means that trade is liberalised

  • In the 1950s, Jacob Viner showed that this is not necessarily correct – later known as ”the theory of the second best”


Trade creation and trade diversion

Trade creation and trade diversion

  • Trade creation The replacement of expensive domestic production by cheaper imports from more efficient partner countries

  • Trade diversion The replacement of cheaper initial imports from lower cost producers outside the union to less efficient producers in member countries


Viner s example

Viner`s example

  • Assume that country A has had a 100 % tariff rate on imports from abroad, and now a CU is formed with A and B. Will this increase welfare in country A ?

  • Assume that country A has had a 50 % tariff rate on imports, and now a CU is formed between A and B. Does this increase welfare in country A?


Trade creation trade diversion

Trade creation/trade diversion

  • Question 1: A will import the good from C. An inefficient producer at home is replaced by an efficient producer in a member country. This is trade creation and increases welfare.

  • Question 2: A will no longer import from the cheapest source (country C cost = 20), but will now import from B for 26. An efficient producer in 3rd country is replaced by an inefficient producer in a member country. This is trade diversion, and reduces welfare. Trade is diverted from C to B.


Analysis of a customs union

Analysis of a Customs Union

  • European integration involved a sequence of preferential liberalisations, but all of these were reciprocal:

    • in example, both home and partner drop T on each other’s exports.

  • Need to address the three-nation trade pattern.


Analysis of a customs union1

Analysis of a Customs Union

  • FTA vs Customs Unions:

    • given symmetry three-nation set up, FTA between home and partner is automatically a customs union

      • home-partner CU has Common External Tariff (CET) equal to T:

    • in the real world, things are more complicated.


Analysis of a customs union2

Analysis of a Customs Union

  • Analysis is simply a matter of recombining results from the unilateral preferential case:

    • in market for good 1, analysis is identical

    • in market for good 2, home plays the role of partner

    • in market for good 2, partner plays role of home.


Welfare effects of a customs union

euros

euros

A

XS

D

P’

2

P”

D

1

C

C2

MD

1

P’-T

B

P”-T

XP’

XP”

XR”

XP’

M’

Exports

imports

Welfare Effects of a Customs Union

  • In market for good 1:

    • home change = A+B-C1-C2.

  • In market for good 2

    • home change = +D1+D2.

  • Note: D1=C1.

  • Net Home impact =A+B+D2-C2.

  • Partner impact identical.

  • RoW loses.


Frictional barrier preferential liberalisation

Frictional Barrier Preferential Liberalisation

  • In market for good 1

    • home change = A+F.

  • In market for good 2

    • home change = +D.

  • Net home impact =A+F+D

    • Unambig. positive.

  • Partner gains same.

  • RoW loses.

euros

euros

A

XS

P’

F

P”

D

MD

P’-T

P”-T

XP’

XP”

XR”

XP’

M’

Exports

imports


Customs union vs fta

Customs Union vs FTA

  • FTA like CU but no Common External Tariff:

    • opens door to ‘tariff cheats’:

      • goods from RoW destined for home market enter via Partner if Partner has lower external tariff, called ‘trade deflection’


Customs union vs fta1

Customs Union vs FTA

  • solution is ‘rules of origin’ meant to establish where a good was made:

    • problems: difficult and expensive to administer, especially as world get more integrated

    • rules often become vehicle for disguised protection.


Customs union vs fta2

Customs Union vs FTA

  • Despite the origin-problem in FTAs, almost all preferential trade arrangements in world are FTAs:

    • CU’s require some political integration:

      • must agree on CET and how to change it, including anti-dumping duties, etc.


Wto rules

WTO Rules

  • A basic principle of the WTO/GATT is non-discrimination in application of tariffs.

  • FTAs and CUs violate this principle.

  • Article 24 permits FTAs and CUs subject to conditions:

    • substantially all trade must be covered:

      • cannot pick and choose products


Wto rules1

WTO Rules

  • intra-bloc tariffs must go to zero within reasonable period

  • if CU, the CET must not on average be higher than the external tariffs of the CU members were before:

    • in EEC’s CU this meant France and Italy lowered their tariffs, Benelux nations raised theirs (German tariffs were about at the average anyway).


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