Lesson Two
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Lesson Two. Marrakech. Aims . To know the writing technique of exposition. To learn the methods in developing an expository writing, esp. the use of examples. To appreciate the language features . Teaching Contents. 1. Background information: Exposition ; George Orwell

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Lesson two

Lesson Two

Marrakech


Lesson two

Aims

  • To know the writing technique of exposition.

  • To learn the methods in developing an expository writing, esp. the use of examples.

  • To appreciate the language features


Teaching contents

Teaching Contents

1. Background information:

Exposition;George Orwell

2. Detailed study of the text

3. Structure analysis /Organizational pattern

4. Language appreciation/ Language features

5. Exercises


Exposition

Exposition

  • Exposition is perhaps the type of writing that is most frequently used by a student, a scientist, or a professional.Exposition --- expounding(解释;详细述说)explaining


Exposition1

Exposition

  • An expository paper explains or explores something, such as the process of making a machine, the causes of a natural or social phenomenon, the planning of a project, or the solution of a problem.


Exposition2

Exposition

Description -- deals with appearances and feelings

Narration --- deals with events and experience

Exposition --- deals with processes and relationships


Exposition3

Exposition

  • Things can be explained bydefinition, listing, examples, classification, comparison and contrast, analysis,analogy, etc.

  • (常见的说明方法有下定义、列数据、举事例、分类别、作比较、作诠释、配图表、打比方、摹状貌、引资料等10种。)

  • 常见的说明顺序有:时间顺序、空间顺序、逻辑顺序。


Definition

Definition

The key to a definition is concreteness. One has to give concrete facts to make a definition effective.


2 listing

2. Listing

We must have enough number of items to be listed. Then, if possible, arrange the items in the graded order of increasing importance.


3 examples

3. Examples

It's the simplest, the most common, best method.


4 classification

4. Classification

We have to follow a system consistently. The categories of division should be mutually exclusive. There should be no overlapping. One item can belong to one category and only one.


5 comparison and contrast

5. Comparison and contrast

We liken one thing to another by pointing out their similarities (comparison) We emphasize the difference between the two. (contrast)


6 analysis

6. Analysis

We may discuss the cause and effect of a historical event, its nature and its significance in history.


Exposition4

Exposition

The writer appeals to a reader‘s understanding with verifiable(能证实的)facts and valid information, explaining and interpreting that materials so that the reader will accept his point of view or explanation. Thus he must organize and develop his thought objectively and present it with honesty and completeness so that the reader will have confidence in what he is saying.


Exposition organization

Exposition(organization)

1. generally the writer makes a statement of the central thought or of his purpose quite early. This statement is sometimes called the “thesis”, and may even be the title of the piece.(beginning with thesis, then supporting it with facts)

2. Sometimes the writer may first present and develop his facts and make his general statement as a conclusion at the end.(beginning with facts, then coming to a conclusion)


The text

The Text

It is an exposition, a political essay. Orwell['ɔ:wəl] leaves no doubt about his feelings concerning colonialism and its results. He has shown the reader how millions of people can be ignored and treated as less than human.


Theme

Theme ----

  • The suffering and misery of the colonial people in Marrakech

  • The writer gives descriptions by examples. The objective presentation of examples show that the people in colonial countries are poverty-stricken.


George orwell

George Orwell

  • George Orwell (1903-1950)

  • pen name for Eric Arthur Blair, the famous British novelist and essayist between the two world wars, the author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, Homage to Catalonia, describing his activities during the Spanish Civil War, Down and Out in Paris and London, describing a period of poverty in these cities, The road to Wigan Pier, Burmese Days, Keep the Aspidistra flying, A Clergyman's daughter, Coming Up for Air...

  • best remembered today for two of his novels, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four.


George orwell1

George Orwell

  • He is much praised in the west partly because of his anti-communist point of view.(his view on Stalin’s policies: people freed---only to be suppressed by tyranny)

  • He was born in India, father, a so-called empire-builder --serving the British government abroad.

  • He received good education in Britain and studied in the most famous school “Eden”.


George orwell2

George Orwell

  • He travelled widely. Marrakech is one of the places he travelled to. His travel made him take a hostile attitude toward imperialism. He showed deep sympathy for the poor and became a firm supporter of socialism.


Detailed study of the text

Detailed study of the text

  • Marrakech: N African city, famous tourist resort today


Detailed study of the text1

Detailed study of the text

  • Marrakech: N African city, famous tourist resort today


Detailed study of the text2

Detailed study of the text

Para 1:

  • As the corpse.... The opening paragraph is very dramatic. The choice of this scene and the words he uses implies much more than what appears on the surface. 1) dirty 2) poor


In a cloud

in a cloud ---

  • a large number of small things moving through the air as a mass eg: a cloud of insects


Crowd

crowd ---

  • It suggests

  • 1) the lack of order

  • 2) people are not terribly concerned about the funeral.


Infuriate v n fj r e t fj r

infuriate --- v. [ɪn'fjʊrɪeɪt /-'fjʊər-]

  • fill with fury or rage outrage; aggravate['ægrəveit] ; enrage; provoke


Comparison

Comparison

  • Donkey and Woman

    • Both are overloaded.

    • Both are willing creatures.

    • Both are small.

    • Both are ill-treated.

    • Both have an miserable end.


Comparison1

Comparison

  • Donkey and Woman

    • Visible

    • Invisible

    • Implication --- Women are worse treated.


Symbol

Symbol

  • white bird/ scraps of paper

    --- symbolic of freedom


Five examples to illustrate the fact

Five examples to illustrate the fact

  • 1. the burial/funeral of the poor people2. an employee of the municipality[mju:﹐nisi'pæliti] 3. poor living and working conditions of the Jews4. poor natural conditions5. miserable life of women


The cause of their poverty

The cause of their poverty

  • 1. Colonialization "All colonial empires are in reality founded upon this fact" (para.1; 17)

  • 2. Racial discrimination "The people have brown faces -- besides there are so many of them" (para.3 ) "He is the same colour as the earth, …" (para.16)


The cause of their poverty1

The cause of their poverty

  • 3. Black people's ignorance He showed his profound respect to his enemy. " He ... has feelings of reverence before a white skin" "Only the Negroes didn't know it“

  • 4. Poor natural conditions


Organizational pattern

Organizational pattern

  •  Sect.1 (para 1--2) Eg.1

  • objective presentation of Example 1 the burial of the people in Marrakech

  • Sect.2 (para 3 ) the thesis ---- “All colonial empires are founded upon this fact”

  • the author's central idea Colonialization is based on the fact that people are very poor.


Organizational pattern1

Organizational pattern

  • Sect.3 (para4--7) Eg.2 The Arabian government employee is as poor as a beggar.

  • Sect.4 (para8--15) Eg.3

    1) the living conditions of the Jews 2) the hard work the Jews do 3) biased attitude against the Jews

  • The specific example of the people clamouring for a cigarette shows that the people are so poor, yet people still have rumours about them and have great prejudice against them.


Organizational pattern2

Organizational pattern

  • Sect.5 (para16--18) Eg.4

  • The country is very poor. The poverty was not noticed by the white people. Because of their black color, the white people didn't even see them.

  • 1> The soils are poor. " dried-up soil" " eroded soil" " desolate" "waste" " broken-up brick“

  • 2> Everything is done by hand. "capital Ls“


Organizational pattern3

Organizational pattern

  • 3> The farming tools are rough. "The plough is so frail, a rough iron spike which stirs the soil to a depth of about four inches.“

  • 4> The farming animals are weak and the peasants calculate carefully.

  • 5> The natural conditions are poor. "dry" They had to dig deep ditches.


Organizational pattern4

Organizational pattern

  • Sect.6 (para19--21) Eg.5 the miserable life of women

  • The writer is describing objectively the physical appearance of the old woman, yet his anger comes through. Notice his choice of words. ( poor; old; mummified; reduced to bones; leathery skin; bent double; crushing weight)


Organizational pattern5

Organizational pattern

  • Sect.7 (para22--26) conclusiondescription of the black troops in general and one black soldier individually.

  • It won't be long for the white people to keep these black people in ignorance.


Language

Language

1. simple words, simple statements to convey deeper meaning

2. the use of rhetorical questions which is very effective in conveying his anger

3. terse(精练的), lucid(明白易懂的) prose style.

4. good diction(措辞)


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