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Chapter 6. Hardware and Software in the Enterprise. Objectives. What computer processing and storage capability does our organization need to handle its information and business transactions? What arrangement of computers and computer processing would best benefit our organization?

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objectives
Objectives
  • What computer processing and storage capability does our organization need to handle its information and business transactions?
  • What arrangement of computers and computer processing would best benefit our organization?
  • What kinds of software and software tools do we need to run our business? What criteria should we use to select our software technology?
objectives3
Objectives
  • What new software technologies are available? How would they benefit our organization?
  • How should we acquire and manage the firm’s hardware and software assets?
management challenges
Management Challenges
  • The centralization versus decentralization debate.
  • The application backlog.
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Hardware components of a computer system

Figure 6-1

computer hardware and information technology infrastructure6
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

Bit

  • Binary digit
  • Represents 0 or 1

Byte

  • String of eight bits
  • Stores one number, symbol, character, part of picture
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure8
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Controls other parts of computer
  • Arithmetic-logic unit performs principle logical/mathematical operations
  • Control unit coordinates other parts, such as reading a stored program
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure9
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

Primary Storage

  • Located near CPU
  • Stores all or part of active software program
  • Stores operating system software
  • Stores data the program is using
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure10
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

Primary Storage

  • Composed of semi-conductors
  • RAM (random access memory): Used for short-term, temporary storage
  • ROM (read-only memory): Semiconductor memory chips with program instructions
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure12
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Computer Processing

Microprocessors

  • Semiconductor chips integrate memory, logic, and control circuits for entire CPU
  • Speed depends on number of bits processed at one time; amount of data that can be moved between devices; and cycle speed (MHz)
  • RISC (reduced instruction set computing) increases speed; used for scientific, workstation computing
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure13
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Computer Processing

Parallel processing

  • Multiple CPUs work simultaneously on same problem
  • More than one instruction processed at a time
  • Massively parallel computers: use hundreds, thousands of processing chips
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure14
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Sequential and parallel processing

Figure 6-4

computer hardware and information technology infrastructure15
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Secondary Storage Technology

  • Used for relatively long-term storage of data outside CPU
  • Magnetic disk: floppies, hard disks, RAID
  • Optical disk: CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD
  • Magnetic tape
  • Storage networking: direct-attached storage; network-attached storage; storage area networks
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure17
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Input Devices

  • Keyboard and mouse
  • Touch screen
  • Optical character recognition
  • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)
  • Pen-based input
  • Digital scanner
  • Audio input
  • Sensors
  • Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure18
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Output Devices

  • Cathode-ray tube (CRT)
  • Printers
  • Audio output
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure19
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Batch Processing

  • Accumulates and stores transactions in group or batch until time to process them
  • Found primarily in older systems for occasional reporting
  • Use tape storage

Online Processing

  • Transactions processed immediately
  • Use disk storage
computer hardware and information technology infrastructure20
Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Interactive Multimedia

  • Integrates sound, video or animation, graphics, text into computer-based application
  • Streaming technology
  • New compression standards: MP3 (MPEG3)
categories of computers and computer systems
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Classifying Computers

  • Mainframe: Largest computer; handles massive amounts of data; used for large business, scientific, military applications
  • Midrange computer: Smaller, less expensive minicomputers or servers; used for smaller organizations or managing networks
  • Minicomputers: Used in systems for universities, factories, research labs
  • Servers: Manage internal company networks or Web sites
categories of computers and computer systems22
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Classifying Computers

  • Personal computer: Portable or desktop microcomputer
  • Workstation: More powerful desktop computer used for computation-intense tasks
  • Supercomputer: Sophisticated, powerful computer used for tasks requiring rapid, complex calculations; weapons research, weather forecasting
categories of computers and computer systems23
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Computer Networks and Client/Server Computing

  • Distributed processing:Distribution of processing work among multiple computers
  • Centralized processing: Accomplished by one large central computer
  • Client/server computing: Splits processing between “clients” and “servers” on network
categories of computers and computer systems24
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Client/server computing

Figure 6-6

categories of computers and computer systems25
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Types of client/server computing

Figure 6-7

categories of computers and computer systems26
Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Network Computers and Peer-to-Peer Computing

  • Network computer (NC):Simplified desktop computer, does not store data permanently
  • Peer-to-peer computing:Distributed processing that links computers through Internet or private networks
  • Grid computing: Applies computational resources of many networked computers to solve a large, complex problem
types of software
Types of Software
  • Software program: A series of statements or instructions to the computer
  • Two major types of software: System software and application software
  • System software:Generalized programs that manage the computer’s resources
  • Application software: Programs written for or by users to perform a specific task
types of software28
Types of Software

The major types of software

Figure 6-8

types of software29
Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

  • Operating system software:Manages the computer system, resources; controls memory, input, output, and task scheduling
  • Computer language translation programs:Compiles source code of high-level language programs (C, FORTRAN) into object code - machine language the computer can execute
  • Utility programs: Perform routine, repetitive tasks such as copying, clearing primary storage
types of software30
Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

Operating System Capabilities

  • Multiprogramming:Concurrent use of CPU by multiple programs
  • Virtual storage: Breaks programs into smaller portions to read as needed
  • Time-sharing: Allows many users to share CPU time
  • Multi-processing: Links two or more CPUs to work in parallel in single computer system
types of software31
Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

PC Operating Systems

  • Software written for one OS generally cannot run on another
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI): Dominant model for user interface for operating systems and applications
types of software32
Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

Leading PC Operating Systems

  • Windows XP
  • Windows 2000
  • Windows Server 2003
  • Windows 98/ME
  • Windows CE
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • Mac OS
  • DOS
types of software33
Types of Software

Window on Management

The Case for Linux

  • Should a company select Linux as an operating system for its major business applications?
  • What are the management benefits Linux provides?
  • What are the business as well as the technology issues that should be addressed when making that decision?
types of software34
Types of Software

Application Programming Languages

types of software35
Types of Software

Application Programming Languages

types of software36
Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

  • Fourth generation languages: Enable end users to develop applications with minimal or no assistance; less procedural
  • Procedural languages: Require sequence of steps
  • Nonprocedural languages: Specify tasks but not details on sequence
  • Natural languages: Nonprocedural languages resembling human speech
  • Query languages: Software tools for providing online answers to information requests
types of software37
Types of Software

Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages

types of software38
Types of Software

Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages

types of software39
Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

Object-Oriented Programming

  • Combine data and methods (procedures) into one object
  • Objects are independent, reusable building blocks
  • Based on concepts of class and inheritance
types of software40
Types of Software

Class and inheritance

Figure 6-9

types of software41
Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

Java

  • Object-oriented
  • Platform-independent
  • Robust; handles data, graphics, video, sound
  • Can create “applets”; often used on Web
  • Java applications tend to run slower than “native” programs
types of software42
Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML):Page description language; creates Web pages and other hypermedia documents
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language):Describes the structure of a document; provides standard format for data exchange
  • XHTML: Reformulates HTML with XML document-type definitions
types of software43
Types of Software

Application Software Packages and Productivity Software

  • Word processing software: Create, format, print documents
  • Desktop publishing software: Produce professional-quality documents with greater formatting, design capabilities
  • Spreadsheets: Display data in grid for recalculating numerical data
  • Data management software: Store, manipulate data in lists and databases
types of software44
Types of Software

Text and the spell-checking option in Microsoft Word

Figure 6-10

types of software45
Types of Software

Spreadsheet software

Figure 6-11

types of software46
Types of Software

Data management software

Figure 6-12

types of software47
Types of Software

Application Software Packages and Productivity Software

  • Presentation graphics: Create professional-quality graphics and multimedia presentations
  • Integrated Software Packages and Suites: Combine two or more applications; easy data transfer
  • E-mail software: Computer exchange of messages
  • Web browsers: Access and display Web, Internet resources
  • Groupware: Support activities of workgroups
types of software48
Types of Software

Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business

  • Enterprise software: Integrates multiple business processes
  • Legacy system: System in place for long time
  • Middleware: Software that connects two disparate systems
  • Enterprise application integration (EAI) software:Middleware to create hub connecting applications and application clusters
types of software49
Types of Software

Enterprise application integration (EAI) software versus traditional integration

Figure 6-13

types of software50
Types of Software

Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business

  • Web services: Universal standards using Internet technology for exchanging data between systems
  • Web server: Manages requests for Web pages on computer where they are stored
  • Application server: Middleware software handling application operations between user and back-end business systems
types of software51
Types of Software

A multitiered architecture for e-commerce and e-business

Figure 6-14

types of software52
Types of Software

Window on Technology

Application Integration to the Rescue

  • How can enterprise application integration and Web services technology provide value for organizations?
  • What management, organization, and technology issues should be addressed when making the decision about whether to use these technologies?
managing hardware and software assets
Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Hardware Technology Requirements

For Electronic Commerce and the Digital Firm

  • Capacity planning: Process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated
  • Scalability: Ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down
managing hardware and software assets54
Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of Technology Assets

  • Includes both direct and indirect costs
  • Hardware and software acquisitions account for only 20% of TCO
  • TCO for a PC may run to three times original purchase price
  • Hidden costs can make distributed architecture more expensive than centralized mainframes
managing hardware and software assets55
Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Cost Components

  • Hardware acquisition
  • Software acquisition
  • Installation
  • Training
  • Support
  • Maintenance
  • Infrastructure
  • Downtime
  • Space and energy
managing hardware and software assets56
Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers

  • Storage service provider: Provides online access to storage devices and storage area network technology
  • Application service provider: Delivers applications over networks on subscription basis
  • Management service provider: Manages applications, systems, security, storage, Web sites, system performance
types of software57
Types of Software

Model of an Application Service Provider (ASP)

Figure 6-15

managing hardware and software assets58
Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers

  • Business continuity provider: Defines procedures for recovery from system malfunctions, disaster recovery
  • Utility computing: Model in which companies pay only for resources used in a specific time period
chapter 6 case study
Chapter 6 Case Study

Zurich North America Hunts Down Its IT Assets

  • Evaluate Zurich North America Canada using the value chain and competitive forces models. Why did IT asset management become so important to this company?
  • Why did Zurich North America have problems managing its hardware and software assets? How serious were these problems? What management, organization, and technology factors were responsible for those problems?
  • How did Zurich North America solve its asset management problem? What managerial and technology tools did it use?
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