Hardware and software in the enterprise l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 59

Hardware and Software in the Enterprise PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 6. Hardware and Software in the Enterprise. Objectives. What computer processing and storage capability does our organization need to handle its information and business transactions? What arrangement of computers and computer processing would best benefit our organization?

Download Presentation

Hardware and Software in the Enterprise

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Hardware and software in the enterprise l.jpg

Chapter 6

Hardware and Software in theEnterprise


Objectives l.jpg

Objectives

  • What computer processing and storage capability does our organization need to handle its information and business transactions?

  • What arrangement of computers and computer processing would best benefit our organization?

  • What kinds of software and software tools do we need to run our business? What criteria should we use to select our software technology?


Objectives3 l.jpg

Objectives

  • What new software technologies are available? How would they benefit our organization?

  • How should we acquire and manage the firm’s hardware and software assets?


Management challenges l.jpg

Management Challenges

  • The centralization versus decentralization debate.

  • The application backlog.


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Hardware components of a computer system

Figure 6-1


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure6 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

Bit

  • Binary digit

  • Represents 0 or 1

    Byte

  • String of eight bits

  • Stores one number, symbol, character, part of picture


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure7 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Bits and bytes

Figure 6-2


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure8 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Controls other parts of computer

  • Arithmetic-logic unit performs principle logical/mathematical operations

  • Control unit coordinates other parts, such as reading a stored program


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure9 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

Primary Storage

  • Located near CPU

  • Stores all or part of active software program

  • Stores operating system software

  • Stores data the program is using


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure10 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The Computer System

Primary Storage

  • Composed of semi-conductors

  • RAM (random access memory): Used for short-term, temporary storage

  • ROM (read-only memory): Semiconductor memory chips with program instructions


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure11 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

The CPU and primary storage

Figure 6-3


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure12 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Computer Processing

Microprocessors

  • Semiconductor chips integrate memory, logic, and control circuits for entire CPU

  • Speed depends on number of bits processed at one time; amount of data that can be moved between devices; and cycle speed (MHz)

  • RISC (reduced instruction set computing) increases speed; used for scientific, workstation computing


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure13 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Computer Processing

Parallel processing

  • Multiple CPUs work simultaneously on same problem

  • More than one instruction processed at a time

  • Massively parallel computers: use hundreds, thousands of processing chips


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure14 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Sequential and parallel processing

Figure 6-4


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure15 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Secondary Storage Technology

  • Used for relatively long-term storage of data outside CPU

  • Magnetic disk: floppies, hard disks, RAID

  • Optical disk: CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD

  • Magnetic tape

  • Storage networking: direct-attached storage; network-attached storage; storage area networks


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure16 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

A storage area network (SAN)

Figure 6-5


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure17 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Input Devices

  • Keyboard and mouse

  • Touch screen

  • Optical character recognition

  • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)

  • Pen-based input

  • Digital scanner

  • Audio input

  • Sensors

  • Radio-frequency identification (RFID)


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure18 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Output Devices

  • Cathode-ray tube (CRT)

  • Printers

  • Audio output


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure19 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Batch Processing

  • Accumulates and stores transactions in group or batch until time to process them

  • Found primarily in older systems for occasional reporting

  • Use tape storage

    Online Processing

  • Transactions processed immediately

  • Use disk storage


Computer hardware and information technology infrastructure20 l.jpg

Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure

Storage, Input, and Output Technology

Interactive Multimedia

  • Integrates sound, video or animation, graphics, text into computer-based application

  • Streaming technology

  • New compression standards: MP3 (MPEG3)


Categories of computers and computer systems l.jpg

Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Classifying Computers

  • Mainframe: Largest computer; handles massive amounts of data; used for large business, scientific, military applications

  • Midrange computer: Smaller, less expensive minicomputers or servers; used for smaller organizations or managing networks

  • Minicomputers: Used in systems for universities, factories, research labs

  • Servers: Manage internal company networks or Web sites


Categories of computers and computer systems22 l.jpg

Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Classifying Computers

  • Personal computer: Portable or desktop microcomputer

  • Workstation: More powerful desktop computer used for computation-intense tasks

  • Supercomputer: Sophisticated, powerful computer used for tasks requiring rapid, complex calculations; weapons research, weather forecasting


Categories of computers and computer systems23 l.jpg

Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Computer Networks and Client/Server Computing

  • Distributed processing:Distribution of processing work among multiple computers

  • Centralized processing: Accomplished by one large central computer

  • Client/server computing: Splits processing between “clients” and “servers” on network


Categories of computers and computer systems24 l.jpg

Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Client/server computing

Figure 6-6


Categories of computers and computer systems25 l.jpg

Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Types of client/server computing

Figure 6-7


Categories of computers and computer systems26 l.jpg

Categories of Computers and Computer Systems

Network Computers and Peer-to-Peer Computing

  • Network computer (NC):Simplified desktop computer, does not store data permanently

  • Peer-to-peer computing:Distributed processing that links computers through Internet or private networks

  • Grid computing: Applies computational resources of many networked computers to solve a large, complex problem


Types of software l.jpg

Types of Software

  • Software program: A series of statements or instructions to the computer

  • Two major types of software: System software and application software

  • System software:Generalized programs that manage the computer’s resources

  • Application software: Programs written for or by users to perform a specific task


Types of software28 l.jpg

Types of Software

The major types of software

Figure 6-8


Types of software29 l.jpg

Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

  • Operating system software:Manages the computer system, resources; controls memory, input, output, and task scheduling

  • Computer language translation programs:Compiles source code of high-level language programs (C, FORTRAN) into object code - machine language the computer can execute

  • Utility programs: Perform routine, repetitive tasks such as copying, clearing primary storage


Types of software30 l.jpg

Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

Operating System Capabilities

  • Multiprogramming:Concurrent use of CPU by multiple programs

  • Virtual storage: Breaks programs into smaller portions to read as needed

  • Time-sharing: Allows many users to share CPU time

  • Multi-processing: Links two or more CPUs to work in parallel in single computer system


Types of software31 l.jpg

Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

PC Operating Systems

  • Software written for one OS generally cannot run on another

  • Graphical User Interface (GUI): Dominant model for user interface for operating systems and applications


Types of software32 l.jpg

Types of Software

System Software and PC Operating Systems

Leading PC Operating Systems

  • Windows XP

  • Windows 2000

  • Windows Server 2003

  • Windows 98/ME

  • Windows CE

  • Unix

  • Linux

  • Mac OS

  • DOS


Types of software33 l.jpg

Types of Software

Window on Management

The Case for Linux

  • Should a company select Linux as an operating system for its major business applications?

  • What are the management benefits Linux provides?

  • What are the business as well as the technology issues that should be addressed when making that decision?


Types of software34 l.jpg

Types of Software

Application Programming Languages


Types of software35 l.jpg

Types of Software

Application Programming Languages


Types of software36 l.jpg

Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

  • Fourth generation languages: Enable end users to develop applications with minimal or no assistance; less procedural

  • Procedural languages: Require sequence of steps

  • Nonprocedural languages: Specify tasks but not details on sequence

  • Natural languages: Nonprocedural languages resembling human speech

  • Query languages: Software tools for providing online answers to information requests


Types of software37 l.jpg

Types of Software

Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages


Types of software38 l.jpg

Types of Software

Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages


Types of software39 l.jpg

Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

Object-Oriented Programming

  • Combine data and methods (procedures) into one object

  • Objects are independent, reusable building blocks

  • Based on concepts of class and inheritance


Types of software40 l.jpg

Types of Software

Class and inheritance

Figure 6-9


Types of software41 l.jpg

Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

Java

  • Object-oriented

  • Platform-independent

  • Robust; handles data, graphics, video, sound

  • Can create “applets”; often used on Web

  • Java applications tend to run slower than “native” programs


Types of software42 l.jpg

Types of Software

Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML):Page description language; creates Web pages and other hypermedia documents

  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language):Describes the structure of a document; provides standard format for data exchange

  • XHTML: Reformulates HTML with XML document-type definitions


Types of software43 l.jpg

Types of Software

Application Software Packages and Productivity Software

  • Word processing software: Create, format, print documents

  • Desktop publishing software: Produce professional-quality documents with greater formatting, design capabilities

  • Spreadsheets: Display data in grid for recalculating numerical data

  • Data management software: Store, manipulate data in lists and databases


Types of software44 l.jpg

Types of Software

Text and the spell-checking option in Microsoft Word

Figure 6-10


Types of software45 l.jpg

Types of Software

Spreadsheet software

Figure 6-11


Types of software46 l.jpg

Types of Software

Data management software

Figure 6-12


Types of software47 l.jpg

Types of Software

Application Software Packages and Productivity Software

  • Presentation graphics: Create professional-quality graphics and multimedia presentations

  • Integrated Software Packages and Suites: Combine two or more applications; easy data transfer

  • E-mail software: Computer exchange of messages

  • Web browsers: Access and display Web, Internet resources

  • Groupware: Support activities of workgroups


Types of software48 l.jpg

Types of Software

Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business

  • Enterprise software: Integrates multiple business processes

  • Legacy system: System in place for long time

  • Middleware: Software that connects two disparate systems

  • Enterprise application integration (EAI) software:Middleware to create hub connecting applications and application clusters


Types of software49 l.jpg

Types of Software

Enterprise application integration (EAI) software versus traditional integration

Figure 6-13


Types of software50 l.jpg

Types of Software

Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business

  • Web services: Universal standards using Internet technology for exchanging data between systems

  • Web server: Manages requests for Web pages on computer where they are stored

  • Application server: Middleware software handling application operations between user and back-end business systems


Types of software51 l.jpg

Types of Software

A multitiered architecture for e-commerce and e-business

Figure 6-14


Types of software52 l.jpg

Types of Software

Window on Technology

Application Integration to the Rescue

  • How can enterprise application integration and Web services technology provide value for organizations?

  • What management, organization, and technology issues should be addressed when making the decision about whether to use these technologies?


Managing hardware and software assets l.jpg

Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Hardware Technology Requirements

For Electronic Commerce and the Digital Firm

  • Capacity planning: Process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated

  • Scalability: Ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down


Managing hardware and software assets54 l.jpg

Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of Technology Assets

  • Includes both direct and indirect costs

  • Hardware and software acquisitions account for only 20% of TCO

  • TCO for a PC may run to three times original purchase price

  • Hidden costs can make distributed architecture more expensive than centralized mainframes


Managing hardware and software assets55 l.jpg

Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Cost Components

  • Hardware acquisition

  • Software acquisition

  • Installation

  • Training

  • Support

  • Maintenance

  • Infrastructure

  • Downtime

  • Space and energy


Managing hardware and software assets56 l.jpg

Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers

  • Storage service provider: Provides online access to storage devices and storage area network technology

  • Application service provider: Delivers applications over networks on subscription basis

  • Management service provider: Manages applications, systems, security, storage, Web sites, system performance


Types of software57 l.jpg

Types of Software

Model of an Application Service Provider (ASP)

Figure 6-15


Managing hardware and software assets58 l.jpg

Managing Hardware and Software Assets

Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers

  • Business continuity provider: Defines procedures for recovery from system malfunctions, disaster recovery

  • Utility computing: Model in which companies pay only for resources used in a specific time period


Chapter 6 case study l.jpg

Chapter 6 Case Study

Zurich North America Hunts Down Its IT Assets

  • Evaluate Zurich North America Canada using the value chain and competitive forces models. Why did IT asset management become so important to this company?

  • Why did Zurich North America have problems managing its hardware and software assets? How serious were these problems? What management, organization, and technology factors were responsible for those problems?

  • How did Zurich North America solve its asset management problem? What managerial and technology tools did it use?


  • Login