Georgian Towns. Urbanisation. Urban growth Cultural responses Contribution to the economy Urban space London Towns: miracles or monsters?. Leading European Cities, 1550-1700. Towns with a population over 2500 in 1700. Towns with a population over 2500 in 1750.
Towns with a population over 2500 in 1700
Towns with a population over 2500 in 1750
Towns with a population over 2500 in 1801
William Shenstone (1714-63), poet and landscape gardener:
‘No one will prefer the beauty of the street to the beauty of a lawn or grove; and indeed the poets would have found no very tempting an Elysium, had they made a town of it.’
John Armstrong (1708/9-1779), Doctor and Poet
The Art of Preserving Health
Ye who amid this feverish world would wear
A body free of pain, of cares a mind;
Fly the rank city, shun its turbid air;
Breathe not the chaos of eternal smoke
And volatile corruption, from the dead,
The dying, sickening, and the living world
Exhaled, to sully Heaven’s transparent dome
With dim mortality. It is not air
That from a thousand lungs reeks back to thine,
Sated with exhalations rank and fell,
The spoil of dunghills, and the putrid thaw
Of nature; when from shape and texture she
Relapses into fighting elements:
It is not air, but floats a nauseous mass
Of all obscene, corrupt, offensive things.
Early Industrial Bradford (View by James Wilson Anderson)
Plan of Leeds, surveyed by John Cossins, c.1730
Tenter frames in the foreground, Leeds in the background
Interior of the Upper St James Street Arcade, Bristol designed by James Foster
Georgian Bath designed by John Wood (1704-1754) He eschewed the fashionable sources of ancient Greece and Rome for his architecture using the aesthetic of neo-classicism as a means to express an architecture, the full origins of which could be traced from biblical times rather than the heathens of classical antiquity. The dimensions of the Circus in Bath are the same as those of Stonehenge. Royal Crescent was designed by John Wood the Elder and built by his son between 1767-74.
Pulteney Bridge, Bath (1779), based on Ponte Vecchio, Florence and the Rialto Bridge, Venice.
Brass Founders with a view of the Brass House in Broad Street (from Bisset’s directory)
Birmingham was the most important centre for brass making in Britain. Engraving shows the Brass House, the canal and a collection of business cards.
Matthew Boulton’s Soho Manufactory and Royal Mint Offices in Handsworth near Birmingham. Built between 1762 and 1764. The mint for producing coins is shown to the right of the works. Soho was located in a rural setting when Boulton bought the lease for his Handsworth site in 1761. By the time of Boulton’s death in 1809, Soho was effectively part of Birmingham.
Leeds Music. First known public concert took place in the 400 seat Assembly rooms in the White Cloth Hall in 1726. Leeds Music Festival of 1784 featured music by Handel. Paganini at the Leeds Music Hall in 1832.
J M W Turner, watercolour of Leeds (1816)
William Wordsworth, Upon Westminster Bridge
Earth has not anything to show more fair:
Dull would he be of soul who could pass by
A sight so touching in its majesty:
This City now doth, like a garment, wear
The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,
Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie
Open unto the fields, and to the sky;
All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.
Never did sun more beautifully steep
In his first splendour, valley, rock, or hill;
Ne’er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!
The river glideth at his own sweet will:
Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;
And all that might heart is lying still!