November 17 2009
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November 17, 2009. Topic: “Changing lives” Language focus: Present perfect simple: a ‘bridge’ between past & present Duration form with ‘for’ & ‘since’ Present perfect or Past simple?. Look at the pictures and answer the questions:

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November 17, 2009

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November 17 2009

November 17, 2009

Topic: “Changing lives”

Language focus: Present perfect simple: a ‘bridge’ between past & present

Duration form with ‘for’ & ‘since’

Present perfect or Past simple?


November 17 2009

Look at the pictures and answer the questions:

These products have one thing in common.

What do you think it is?


November 17 2009

  • 2. When you buy products like these do you know

  • which countries they come from?

  • how much of the price goes to the growers?


November 17 2009

Vocabulary practice 1 Read the information about the Fairtrade Foundation. Find words and phrases which mean:1. promises 2. business agreement3. poor countries that are trying to improve their economy4. receive an advantage 5. countries with advanced economies

Simply buying a Fairtrade product can help a village get clean water or children to go to school. Four and a half million farmers and their families, in 36 countries, benefit from Fairtrade.

In general, global trade has made people in the rich developed countries richer and people in the poor developing countries poorer.

Fairtrade guarantees a better deal for Third World producers


Answers

Answers

  • Guarantees = promises

  • Business agreement = deal

  • Poor countries that are trying to improve their economy = developing countries or Third World countries

  • Receive an advantage = benefit

  • Countries with advanced economies = developed countries


Reading practice 1 read the three texts again and answer the following questions

Reading practice 1 Read the three texts again and answer the following questions:

  • What does Fairtrade guarantee to the people it helps?

  • Who does Fairtrade help?

  • Which countries has global trade helped most?


Answers1

Answers

  • A better deal

  • Millions of farmers in 36 countries

  • The rich countries


November 17 2009

Reading practice 2 Read the information and answer the questions.1. When can companies use the name Fairtrade on their products?2. What is a ‘social premium’?

The Fairtrade Foundation permits companies whose products meet the international standards of Fairtrade to put the name ‘Fairtrade’ on their products. These products include coffee, tea, cocoa, and fresh fruit. Under the Fairtrade system the producers receive a fair price which includes extra money, called ‘social premium’, to help them improve their living and working conditions. Fairtrade gives them advance payments to help with production costs and long-term contracts so they can plan for the future.


Answers2

Answers

  • When their products meet the international standards set by Fairtrade.

  • It is a fair price which includes extra money that help producers improve their living and working conditions.

    Look at the underlined word: what does it mean?

    very highvery low acceptable/appropriate


November 17 2009

Listening practiceListen to an interview with the Executive Director of Fairtrade in the UK. Fill in the gaps.

  • Fairtrade started in ____ in the UK and in ____ in the Netherlands

  • At present it is in _____ countries, mostly in Western Europe, but also the USA, _______, Australia, New Zealand, and _______.

  • The first country in Eastern Europe to have Fairtrade is _________.

  • Producers can use the ‘social premium’ to improve their _________ and _________ conditions.

  • In the UK sales went up by _____% in ______.

  • Usually the price of a Fairtrade product is about ____ to _____% more than the average price.


Answers3

Answers

  • Fairtrade started in 1992 in the UK and in 1988 in the Netherlands

  • At present it is in 17 countries, mostly in Western Europe, but also the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.

  • The first country in Eastern Europe to have Fairtrade is Hungary.

  • Producers can use the ‘social premium’ to improve their living and working conditions.

  • In the UK sales went up by 50% in 2001.

  • Usually the price of a Fairtrade product is about 10 to 20% more than the average price.


November 17 2009

Since 1988 Fairtrade has expanded…

This has been a disaster…

They’ve built wells…

People are willing to pay a bit more…

To help people escape poverty…

event that causes a lot of damage and problems

being very poor

got bigger

happy, ready to do smth.

deep holes in the ground from which you get water

Vocabulary practice 2 These are sentences from the same interview. Match the underlined words in A with their meanings in B.


Answers4

Answers:

1 – c

2 – a

3 – e

4 – d

5 – b


Language focus 1

Language focus 1

  • Fairtrade started in the Netherlands in 1988.

  • In recent years the price of coffee, cocoa and bananas has fallen.

  • In the UK sales went up by 50% in 2001.

  • Since 1988 Fairtrade has expanded into many other countries.

  • What tenses are the sentences above?

  • Which tense do we use for situations and actions that happened:

    a)at a definite time in the past?

    b)in a period of time from the past to the present?


Answers5

Answers

  • Sentences 1 & 3: Past simple

  • Sentences 2 & 4: Present perfect simple

  • a= Past simple

  • b= Present perfect simple

    Another question for you:

    Which tense do we use with expressions like:

  • in 2001, when…?

  • Since 1988, in recent years?


Answers6

Answers

  • in 2001, when…? = Pastsimple

  • Since 1988, in recent years? = Present perfect simple


Match sentences 1 2 with a suitable timeline one is not suitable

Match sentences 1&2 with a suitable timeline. One is not suitable.

  • Fairtrade started in the Netherlands in 1988.

  • In recent years the price of coffee, cocoa and bananas has fallen.

    1988

1

P A S T

NOW

2

PAST NOW

3

PAST

NOW


Answers7

Answers

Sentence 1 = timeline 1

Sentence 2 = timeline 2

Why is timeline 3 not suitable?


Answer

Answer

Timeline 3 shows an event that lasted for a certain period of time in the past but that doesn’t affect the present.


November 17 2009

Language practice 1 Complete these sentences with the correct time expression, a or b:1. I made a research trip to Africa ________ a) a year agob) in the last six months2. The price of coffee has fallen _______ a) in 1992b) every year since 19923. Rich countries have got richer and poor countries have got poorer a) in the 1990sb) in the last decade4. Did sales of Fairtrade products increase _______? a) recentlyb) last year5. How many producers has Fairtrade helped _______? a) since 1988b) between 1988 and 2000


November 17 2009

Answers1. I made a research trip to Africa ________ a) a year agob) in the last six months2. The price of coffee has fallen _______ a) in 1992b) every year since 19923. Rich countries have got richer and poor countries have got poorer a) in the 1990sb) in the last decade4. Did sales of Fairtrade products increase _______? a) recentlyb) last year5. How many producers has Fairtrade helped _______? a) since 1988b) between 1988 and 2000


November 17 2009

Language practice 2 Complete the extracts from a newspaper article about Fairtrade. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.

Since 1992 the price of cocoa beans _____ 1(fall) by 50%. In the same period the price of a bar of chocolate _____ 2 (increase) by 65%, but the farmers who grow cocoa ____ 3 (not receive) a higher price for their crop.

In the last decade the wages of workers on many banana plantations ______ 4 (decrease). In 1993 workers in Costa Rica ______ 5 (earn) $ 250 a month. In 1997 their wages _______ 6 (fall) to $ 187 and in 2001 they _______ 7 (go down) again - to only $ 160.

In recent years global trade _______ 8 (make) it possible for the rich developed countries to buy their coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, etc. from the country with the cheapest price, changing from one country to another. This _______9 (be) a disaster for whole communities in the developing world who ______ 10 (grow) the same crop for generations.


Answers8

Answers

Since 1992 the price of cocoa beans has fallen1 by 50%. In the same period the price of a bar of chocolate has increased2 by 65%, but the farmers who grow cocoa haven’t received3 a higher price for their crop.

In the last decade the wages of workers on many banana plantations have decreased 4. In 1993 workers in Costa Rica earned5 $ 250 a month. In 1997 their wages fell6 to $ 187 and in 2001 they went down7 again - to only $ 160.

In recent years global trade has made8 it possible for the rich developed countries to buy their coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, etc. from the country with the cheapest price, changing from one country to another. This has been9 a disaster for whole communities in the developing world who have grown10 the same crop for generations.


November 17 2009

  • Why did you choose the Present perfect simple for gaps n. 1,2,3,4,8,9 and 10?

    Because the Present perfect simple is used to talk about ____________________.

  • Why did you choose the Past simple for gaps n. 5,6 and 7?

    Because the Past simple is used to talk about ____________________.


November 17 2009

Because the Present perfect simple is used to talk about past actions/situations in a time up to the present.

Because the Past simple is used to talk about actions/situationsthat happened in the past and are now finished.


Further reflection on topic language

Further reflection on topic & language:

  • You can find explanations and further practice on Present perfect simple and the contrast between Present perfect simple and Past simple on the following websites (the first comes with a video):

  • http://www.nspeak.com/giorgi/efl/fad/grammar/38pastsimplevsperfect/simplepastvsperfect.htm

  • http://cla.uniss.it/inglese/Grammar/Verbi/Present/Perfect_simple.html#uso

  • http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/StudyZone/410/grammar/ppvpast.htm

  • You can find info on the Fairtrade Foundation and its activities www.fairtrade.org.uk


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