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Universal Screening. Illinois ASPIRE A lliance for S chool-based P roblem-solving & I ntervention R esources in E ducation Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of the Illinois State Board of Education. All funding is from federal sources.

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Universal screening

Universal Screening

Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in EducationIllinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of the Illinois State Board of Education. All funding is from federal sources.


Illinois aspire a lliance for s chool based p roblem solving i ntervention r esources in e ducation

Project Goal : Establish and implement a coordinated, regionalized system of personnel development that will increase school systems’ capacity to provide early intervening services [with an emphasis on reading], aligned with the general education curriculum, to at-risk students and students with disabilities, as measured by improved student progress and performance.

Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in Education

Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of ISBE. All funding is from federal sources.


Illinois aspire a lliance for s chool based p roblem solving i ntervention r esources in e ducation1

Objectives:

Deliver research-based professional development and technical assistance in Problem-Solving Service Delivery Systems, Response-to-Intervention (RTI), scientifically based reading instruction, and Standards Aligned Classrooms (SAC).

Increase the participation of parents in decision-making across district sites.

Incorporate professional development content into higher education general and special education preservice & graduate level curricula.

Evaluate the effectiveness of project activities.

Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in Education

Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of ISBE. All funding is from federal sources.


Intended participant outcomes
Intended Participant Outcomes

  • Understand Key Concepts and Vocabulary of Universal Screening

  • Distinguish Between Referral-Driven Problem Solving and Universal Screening and Referral-Driven Problem-Solving

  • Be Able to Organize and Implement a Benchmark Assessment Process for Universal Screening Using CBM (or member of the CBM “Family” like DIBELS)


Universal screening and benchmarking
UNIVERSAL SCREENING AND BENCHMARKING….

Always needs to occur in the

context of all the problem

solving/RTI components in

place in the school


Foundational concepts vocabulary and tools of rti
Foundational Concepts, Vocabulary, and Tools of RtI

IT’S ALL ABOUT A MAJOR

CHANGE

IN HOW WE GO ABOUT

OUR BUSINESS

OF HELPING KIDS

Response-to-Intervention and Problem-Solving are about:

Thinking Differently

About Problems, Causes, and Solutions (Concepts)

Talking Differently

About Problems, Causes, and Solutions (Vocabulary)

Doing Some Things Differently (Tools and Behaviors)

“You can’t do something different in the same way”. (Dr. George Batsche)


All the principles and components of RtI are about building abetter support system for general education.

  • DOING IT BETTER

  • DOING IT DIFFERENTLY

  • PROVIDING MORE LEVELS OF SUPPORT TO HELP ALL STUDENTS

  • REALLOCATING RESOURCES/SKILLS IN DIFFERENT WAYS


Foundational concepts the data the interventions the problem solving process
Foundational Concepts: The Data,The Interventions,The Problem Solving Process


What is Response to Intervention (RtI) ? (Batsche, Elliott, Graden, Grimes, Kovaleski, Prasse, Reschly, Scharg, Tilley, 2005)

•Identifying and providing high quality instruction and research-based interventions matched to students needs

  • •Measuring rate of improvement (ROI) over time to make important educational decisions

  • •Educators using ongoing student performance data to determine if an intervention is working. If it is not, it is time to do something different


An rti vision any school usa
An RtI Vision Any School, USA

Efficient Teaming and Problem Solving at each Tier

Data-Based Decisions

at each Tier

Intervention-rich environment at each Tier


And…

For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability,

the group MUST consider,.. as part of the evaluation …data that demonstrates that--

…Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the child’s parents.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA)


Problem solving method

Problem Identification

Is there a problem? What is it?

Problem Analysis

Why is it happening?

Plan Evaluation

Did our plan work?

Plan Development

What shall we do about it?

Problem Solving Method


Purposes of Assessment

Who has problems? (Problem Identification)

Why is the problem is occurring? (Problem Analysis)

Is our instruction working to fix the problem?

(Plan Development & Implementation)

How well are we doing overall?

(Plan Evaluation)

Screening

Diagnostic

Progress Monitoring

Outcome/Accountability

Taken from Heartland AEA 11


Assessment Systems Used in RtI Models

Taken from Heartland AEA 11


Assessment Systems Used in RtI Models

ISAT

MAP

Aimsweb

DIBELS

ITBS, Terra Nova

Aimsweb

DIBELS

CBE -R

SLA, ISEL,QRI

MAP, Run.Rec.

Inform. Phonics

Aimsweb

DIBELS

Sopris West

tool

Functional Beh.

Assessment

Taken from Heartland AEA 11


Use Scientifically Based Problem Identification & Progress Monitoring Tools

NATIONAL CENTER ON STUDENT PROGRESS MONITORING www.studentprogress.org(NOW RTI4SUCCESS.ORG)



ASSESSMENT TOOLS Monitoring Have Been Established

Not All Assessment Tools Schools Use Meet Accepted Psychometric Standards

Members of the CBM “Family” Do

www.studentprogress.org/tools


SAME MEASURES FOR US & B AND PROGRESS MONITORING Monitoring Have Been Established

PROGRESS

MONITORING

(ROI)

SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING

PINPOINTING THE SPECIFIC

AREA OF DIFFICULTY,

DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION

EVERY WEEK OR 2

TIER III

MONTHLY

STRATEGIC MONITORING

(ROI)

TIER II

1. UNIVERSAL SCREENING

AND BENCHMARKING:

EARLY LITERACY MEASURES, AS

DIBELS OR AIMSWEB

CBM

(KEY CRITICAL INDICATORS)

TIER I

3 X PER

YEAR


Integrated Assessment Systems Monitoring Have Been Established

Not this

Assessment

Instruction

This is what we want..

Instruction

Assessment

Aligning Assessment and Instruction


CBM-GOM are used as Universal Screeners- Monitoring Have Been EstablishedWhat is a Universal Screening?

  • Given to everyone

  • Measures Critical Skills

  • Brief

  • Repeatable

  • Cheap and easy to administer and score

  • Tells us who and what tier needs intervention


Aimsweb Literacy Measures: Monitoring Have Been Established

  • Letter Naming Fluency

  • Letter Sound Fluency

  • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

  • Nonsense Word Fluency

  • Oral Reading Fluency

Early Literacy


HEY, Monitoring Have Been Established…WHY AREN’T WE CALLING THIS DIBELS?!

  • DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) are early literacy measures developed by the University of Oregon.

  • AIMSWeb also has a set of Early Literacy Measures. They are almost identical to the DIBELS measures. The differences are not significant. Most RtI Aspire sites are using the administration, scoring, and probes from Aimsweb.


1. Aimsweb Letter Naming Fluency Monitoring Have Been Established

(Measures the number of letters a student can name in one minute.)

Here are some letters. Begin here (point to the first letter) and tell me the names of as many letters as you can. If you come to a letter you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.

In general, does the student have automaticity?

fluency of naming?

g N E Y R l V d H ZN d x S C n j H s SE n G h c i h B b OY F p D L i q c D QR v F J Z M P o p ul G A f V B P k m IV M e r y z a L U Ad y q v w u T w N UH j K e r X T z Y XZ x f m W W s J I kl E R K g N E Y R l


2. Aimsweb Letter Sound Fluency Monitoring Have Been Established

(Measures the number of letter sounds a student can name in one minute.)

Here are some letters. Begin here and tell me the sounds (with emphasis) of as many letters as you can. If you come to a sound you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.

In general, can the student efficiently convert the visual symbol into an auditory one..with automaticity?

g N E Y R l V d H ZN d x S C n j H s SE n G h c i h B b OY F p D L i q c D QR v F J Z M P o p ul G A f V B P k m IV M e r y z a L U Ad y q v w u T w N UH j K e r X T z Y XZ x f m W W s J I kl E R K g N E Y R l


3. Aimsweb Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Monitoring Have Been Established

(Measures the number of phonemes students can segment in 1 minute.)

I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word.

So, if I say, “sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/.

Let’s try one. (one second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop”

Ok. Here is your first word.

In general, does the student understand that words can be broken into its component phoneme/parts?


4. Aimsweb Nonsense Word Fluency Monitoring Have Been Established

(Measures the number of phonemes students can read in 1 minute.)

Here are some more make-believe words (point to the student probe).

Start here (point to the first word) and go across the page (point across the page).

When I say, “begin”, read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word.

Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin.

In general, does the student have automaticity with mapping/recalling the sound-letter relationships?Can they ‘CRACK THE CODE’?


5. Aimsweb CBM Oral Reading Fluency Monitoring Have Been Established

(Measures student’s ability to read grade level passages accurately and fluently.)

Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading.

When I say, “stop” I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading.

Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.

In general, has the student developed automatic phonemic awareness, phonics skills, and word recognition skills to be a fluent reader?


6. Aimsweb Maze Monitoring Have Been Established

(Measures student’s ability to read grade level passages accurately and fluently and comprehend.)

When I say ‘Begin’, I

want you to silently read a story. You will have 3 min. to read the story and complete the task. Listen carefully to the directions. Some of the words in the story are replaced with a group of 3 words. Your job is to circle the 1 word that makes the most sense in the story. Only 1 word is correct.

In general, has the student developed automatic phonemic awareness, phonics skills, and word recognition skills to be a fluent and comprehending reader?


Why THESE Literacy Measures? Monitoring Have Been Established

  • Torgesen says that “Measures of letter knowledge continue to be the best single predictor of reading difficulties.”

  • Marilyn J. Adams, in her article, “The Elusive Phoneme”, says that “a child’s level of phonemic awareness on entering school is widely held to be the strongest single determinant of the success that he or she will experience in learning to read.”

  • Research has shown that Oral Reading Fluency is the best reading General Outcome Measure (GOM).


Big ideas in reading national reading panel
BIG IDEAS IN READING Monitoring Have Been Established(National Reading Panel)

  • PHONEMIC AWARENESS

  • PHONICS

  • FLUENCY

  • VOCABULARY

  • COMPREHENSION


BIG IDEAS IN EARLY LITERACY SKILLS Monitoring Have Been Established

  • Phonemic Awareness:

    • The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language, that ‘cat’ is composed of the sounds: /k/ /a/ /t/

  • Alphabetic Principle: Based on 2 parts:

    • Alphabetic Understanding. Words are composed of letters that represent sounds,

      and

    • Phonological Recoding. Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell

  • Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text.

    • Readers who are not fluent at decoding are not able to focus their additional resources on comprehension


Big Ideas Drive the Train Monitoring Have Been EstablishedBig ideas drive the curriculum and instruction Big ideas drive the measures we use

  • Phonemic Awareness

  • Alphabetic Principle

  • Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text

  • Risk indicator that acquisition of crucial skills may be difficult

  • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

  • Letter Sound Fluency

  • Nonsense Word Fluency

  • CBM Oral Reading Fluency

  • Letter Naming Fluency


IN GENERAL, Monitoring Have Been EstablishedORAL READING FLUENCY MEASURES PROVIDE QUALITATIVE INFORMATION ABOUT 3 BROAD COMPETENCIES:

  • 1. RATE: Words read correctly

    -Above 75th%- consider differentiating instruction

    -Below 25%- consider need for Tier 2 interventions

    -Below 10%- further assess, do problem analysis, and consider need for Tier 2 and/or 3 interventions

  • 2. ACCURACY: Error rates

    -0-5 error rate= acceptable accuracy (skilled readers are 95% or better accurate)..

    -5-10% error rate= accuracy in question (90% accuracy)

    ->10% error rate=unacceptable accuracy (<90% accuracy)

  • 3. COMPREHENSION

    -ADEQUATE FLUENCY AND RATE CORRELATE STRONGLY WITH ADEQUATE COMPREHENSION


Linking oral reading fluency with comprehension. Monitoring Have Been Established

These are in______and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle res________ are ________in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in sport of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-speeded con______ that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.

Students with Some (Limited) Reading Skills


These are interesting and challenging times for anyone whose professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.


ORF Informs Qualitative Features of Good Reading professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

  • Is highly fluent (rate and accuracy)?

  • 2. Uses effective strategies to decode words?

    • effective word attack

    • Context

  • Adjusts pacing (i.e., slows down and speeds up

  • according to level of text difficulty)?

    • of word(s)

    • syntax (word order)

    • semantics (word meaning)


  • ORF Informs Qualitative professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

    Features of Good Reading

    • 4. Attends to prosodic features?

      • inflection (pause, voice goes up and down)

      • reads with expression

      • punctuation (commas, exclamation points, etc.)

      • predicts level of expression according to syntax

  • 5. Possesses prediction-orientation?

    • seems to look ahead when reading

    • reads at a sentence or paragraph level


  • ORF Informs Qualitative professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

    Features of Good Reading

    • 6. Self-monitors what she/he is reading?

      • Self-corrects if makes meaning distortion errors

  • 7. Makes only meaning preservation errors?

    • more errors that preserve meaning (e.g., “house” for “home”)

    • fewer meaning distortion errors (e.g., “mouse” for “house”)

  • 8. Automaticity on reread words.

    • words that appear throughout text are read automatically (e.g., become “sight words”)


  • Qualitative professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

    Features

    Worth Noting

    Source: AIMSweb/M ark Shinn


    ALL professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

    These Skills =

    General Reading Skill

    What Does R-CBM Measure?


    General Outcome Measures (GOMs) From Other Fields professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

    Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure as the best ndicators of general health.

    Federal Reserve Board measures the Consumer Price Index

    Wall Street measures the Dow-Jones Industrial Average

    Companies report earnings per share

    McDonald’s measures how many hamburgers they sell

    Reading measures Oral Reading Fluency as the best indicators of general reading health/achievement.


    Things to Always Remember About CBM- GOM professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

    Are sensitive to improvement in brief intervalsof time

    Also tell us how students earned their scores (qualitative information)

    Designed to be as short as possible to ensure its “do ability”

    Are linked to decision making for promoting positive achievement and Problem-Solving


    Once Screening Data is Collected You Begin to Make Informed Decisions…

    Data-Based Decisions!

    • District or School Level Decisions

    • Classroom or Group Decisions

    • Individual Student Decisions


    ALWAYS THINK ABOUT STUDENT NEEDS IN THIS FRAMEWORK: Decisions…

    INDIVIDUAL

    NEEDS

    TIER III.

    TIER II.

    • CLASS NEEDS

    • SMALL GROUP NEEDS

    • DISTRICT NEEDS

    • SCHOOL NEEDS

    • GRADE LEVEL NEEDS

    TIER I.


    Old system of problem solving
    Old System of Problem Solving Decisions…

    Special Education

    General Education

    Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

    General Education

    with Support

    Severity of Educational Need or Problem


    Why hasn’t this old system of problem solving been very effective?

    Because we’ve been trying to solve students’ problems one student at a time.

    This has been impractical and too time intensive to be effective.


    Bridging the Gap effective?

    Core + Intensive

    Core + Supplemental

    Weekly

    Core

    Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

    Weekly-Monthly

    3x/year

    Severity of Educational Need or Problem


    Bridging the Gap effective?

    Core + Intensive

    Core + Supplemental

    Weekly

    Core

    Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

    Weekly-Monthly

    3x/year

    Severity of Educational Need or Problem


    Bridging the Gap effective?

    Core + Intensive

    Core + Supplemental

    Weekly

    Core

    Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

    Weekly-Monthly

    3x/year

    Severity of Educational Need or Problem


    Bridging the Gap effective?

    Core + Intensive

    Core + Supplemental

    Weekly

    Core

    Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

    Weekly-Monthly

    3x/year

    Severity of Educational Need or Problem


    Problem Identification effective?

    What is the Problem and Is it Significant?

    Problem Analysis

    Why is it happening?

    Plan Evaluation

    Did our plan work?

    Plan Development

    What shall we do about it?

    Data-Based Decision Making Steps


    Targeted/ effective?

    Supplemental

    7%-15%

    Intensive

    3%-5%

    Universal

    80%-90%

    Data Based Decision Making

    ACADEMICS

    BEHAVIOR


    Intensive effective?

    5%

    Targeted/

    Supplemental

    15%

    Universal

    80%

    Data Based Decision Making

    We want these

    percentages:

    Tier 1.: 50% or better on Aimsweb norms.

    Tier 3.: 25% or lower on Aimsweb norms.

    Tier 2: Everyone in between.


    School-Wide Reading Improvement in a School Using Problem-Solving

    Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School District, IL


    Tier 2: Problem-Solving Strategic Monitoring of At Risk


    Data Review Problem-SolvingIntervention Group 1

    Median GOAL

    ROI = 1.3

    Median TREND

    ROI = 4.71

    Intervention

    Effective?


    Student Progress Monitoring: Problem-SolvingIs the student making progress

    from the intervention?


    No Significant Discrepancy/ Problem-Solving

    Educational Need

    Educational Need is Measured by aPERFORMANCE DISCREPANCY


    More Severe Educational Need Problem-Solving

    Significant Discrepancy

    Educational Need

    Significant Performance Discrepancy


    Rate of Improvement that is REDUCING the Gap Problem-Solving

    Some Potential Educational Need, Significant Educational Benefit: Maintain the General Education Program (Tier 2)

    IS THIS STUDENT REDUCING THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN HIMSELF AND GRADE LEVEL PEERS?


    BIG IDEA Problem-Solving

    Use assessment data to determine

    student need and link that to

    research-based interventions that

    match the need

    DATA

    INFORMS NEED

    INTERVENTION


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