Chapter 2 the transportation planning process
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Chapter 2 The Transportation Planning Process. Transportation III. STUDY OBJECTIVES. At the end of this chapter students will be expected to: explain, in some detail, the relevance and purpose of transport planning; understand the basis of the transport planning process;

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Chapter 2 The Transportation Planning Process

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Chapter 2 the transportation planning process

Chapter 2The Transportation Planning Process

Transportation III


Study objectives

STUDY OBJECTIVES

At the end of this chapter students will be expected to:

  • explain, in some detail, the relevance and purpose of transport planning;

  • understand the basis of the transport planning process;

  • have insight into the developments which occurred in this field overseas in developed countries;


Study objectives cont

STUDY OBJECTIVES cont’

  • outline the developments in South Africa with regard to transportation planning;

  • discuss the various criticisms, and the reasons behind this, against transportation planning processes; and

  • outline and explain the link between planning and macro policies.


2 1 history

2.1 HISTORY

2.1.1 THE PURPOSE OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS

  • The transport planning process has been developed in an attempt to alleviate the problems caused by:

  • growth by urban population and the

  • rapid increase in motor vehicle ownership and usage

  • while at the same time utilising the full range of transport modes available for movement.


2 1 1 the purpose of the transportation planning process cont

2.1.1 THE PURPOSE OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

  • The aim of this Transporation Planning process intil recently has been purely traffic functional, i.e. it has aimed I

  • to improve the obvious inefficiencies of the currant transport systems, e.g. congestion, delays, accidents, and

  • to produce proposals for capital investment and construction in existing and new transport facilities where they expect overloading


2 1 1 the purpose of the transportation planning process cont1

2.1.1 THE PURPOSE OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

  • Since then there has been a move to the development of ‘new’ approaches to the transportation planning process in an attempt to improve on the traffic functional approach adopted in the first round of major studies,

  • e.g. the systems approach; the ‘cyclic’ approach.


2 1 2 the basics of the transportation planning process

2.1.2 THE BASICS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS

The urban transportation planning process is based on a range of assumptions and principles the most basic of which are that:

  • Travel patterns are tangible, stable and predictable;

  • Movement demands are directly related to the distribution, and intensity of land uses, which are capable of being accurately determined for some future date.


2 1 2 the basics of the transportation planning process cont

2.1.2 THE BASICS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

In addition to these fundamental assumptions, it has been found necessary in the light of experience to assume that:

  • relationships between all modes - future role of 1 mode mode cannot be determined without giving consideration to all other modes;

  • The transportation system influences the development of an area, as well as serving that area;


2 1 2 the basics of the transportation planning process cont1

2.1.2 THE BASICS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

  • Areas of continuous urbanisation require a region-wide consideration of the transportation situation;

  • The transportation study is an integral part of the overall planning process, and cannot adequately be considered in isolation;

  • The planning process is continuous, and requires constant up-dating, validating and amendment.


2 1 2 the basics of the transportation planning process cont2

2.1.2 THE BASICS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

Specialists involved in this type of transport planning are:

  • engineers,

  • traffic and transportation specialists,

  • town planners and

  • Economists

  • i.e. Team work


2 2 historical developments

2.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS

2.2.1 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA

  • Prior to the 1950s, problems of movement were seen largely in terms of road traffic, and

  • the accepted method of assessing the future demand of movement by road was to examine or count the existing flows, and extrapolate these to some future date by applying an appropriate growth factor.


2 2 1 early developments in north america cont

2.2.1 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA cont’

  • Then came a breakthrough with the formulation of the theory that different types of land use generate different and variable traffic flows.

  • It shifted the emphasis from the study of road traffic flows to the study of the land uses that give rise to the flaws.


2 2 3 developments in south africa

2.2.3 DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTH AFRICA

  • The following is a summary of current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa:

  • (i) Present land use distortions lead to sprawling, inefficient cities and towns, which negatively affect accessibility and greatly increase the need for people to travel.

    E.G.1 - Non-motorised trips such as cycling - or walking to work, shops, social and recreational facilities are often not possible.


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • E.G. 2 - Low housing densities, long travel distances and times, and dispersal or residential, commercial, industrial and recreational developments have resulted in an inefficient transport system. The


Chapter 2 the transportation planning process

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • E.G. 3 - The utilisation of public transport and rolling stock is low, leading to low cost coverage.

  • Consequently, the percentage of disposable income spent on transport by a large proportion of our citizens is unacceptably high by intenational standards


Chapter 2 the transportation planning process

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (ii) There is no comprehensive legislation for land transport.

  • Although separate legislation exists for each mode.

  • There is no specific legislation for the planning and subsidisation of road-based transport operations.


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont1

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (iii) Responsibility for land transport is fragmented amongst a number of authorities at various levels of government.

  • There remains no single body at any level of government responsible for all land transport functions. infrastructure and operations.

  • There is limited capacity to manage the land transport function in many of the responsible institutions.

  • This situation results in inefficiency in decision-making;


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont2

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (iv) In the past, very little comprehensive planning of land transport was carried out at any level of government.

  • Planning concentrated on the provision of transport infrastructure and traffic management in the cities, but the operational aspects of public transport were largely neglected.


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont3

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (v)The impacts of energy usage, environmental impacts such as vehicle emissions, noise pollution and visual intrusion have hardly been taken into account in the planning of transport systems.


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont4

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (vi) Although public transport is regulated through the issuing of permits by Local Road Transportation Boards. (LRTBs), there are no statutory requirements to issue permits in terms of approved integrated transport plans.


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont5

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (vii) Sources of funding for public transport, and the allocation and application of funds remain problematic.

  • E.G. – GAUTENG E-TOLLS – HOMEWORK 2


Current transport problems and realities experienced in south africa cont6

Current transport problems and realities experienced in South Africa cont’

  • (viii) There is concern that the funds spent on the subsidisation of transport services are not being spent efficiently and productively.

  • END END


2 3 comments on the transportation planning process

2.3 COMMENTS ON THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS

At the operational level it is said to be too concerned with:

  • the technical problems associated with traffic estimation and network planning, and

  • too little concerned with the transport needs of the community at large.


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

  • In the eyes of many politicians and the public generally it has led to proposals favouring the motor vehicle and ignoring the possibilities of public transport, while

  • the level of public involvement has been most inadequate.


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont1

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

At a technical level the process is criticised for considering:

  • too few (if any) alternative plans and policies; for inadequately defining goals and objectives and basing the evaluation of alternative proposals solely on economic grounds.


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont2

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

What is should be but what it is not.

Transport planning process should be comprehensive and incorporate on an integrated area-wide basis the considerations of

  • economic and population factors,

  • land use,

  • social and community values and

  • the role of different transport modes,


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont3

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

Investment in land-use transport plans tends to be evaluated against six main traffic functional criteria:

  • The satisfaction of observed demand;

  • The reduction or elimination of bottle-necks in the network(s);.

  • Enhanced efficiency in the existing or proposed network(s);


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont4

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

  • Net user benefits;

  • Capital costs involved in the construction of the network(s);

  • The economic return on investment.


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont5

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

Most significant criticism against transport planners is:

  • the failure to recognise and utilise transport planning as one of the most important tools for guiding and shaping the development of the urban environment.


2 3 1 criticisms of the transportation planning process cont6

2.3.1 CRITICISMS OF THE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS cont’

  • The choice of a transportation system is the most important developmental decision that a metropolitan region takes and planners need to use this tool to shape the physical urban environment


2 3 2 the link between planning and macro policies

2.3.2 THE LINK BETWEEN PLANNING AND MACRO POLICIES

  • The relevant national policies fall into two categories i.e.

    (i) those stated in a country’s constitution, providing a basis for transport policy; and

    (ii) the transport mission and strategic objectives of a county’s national transport policy.


2 3 2 the link between planning and macro policies cont

2.3.2 THE LINK BETWEEN PLANNING AND MACRO POLICIES cont’

(A) NATIONAL GOALS AND POLICIES

Some important policies, which provide direct guidance to transport policy, are the following:

i) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement;

ii) Every citizen has the right to choose their trade, occupation or profession freely;

iii) Everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being;

Etc.


A national goals and policies cont

(A) NATIONAL GOALS AND POLICIES cont’

National legislation is necessary for:

  • The maintenance of national security.

  • The maintenance of economic unity

  • The protection of the common market in respect of the mobility of goods, services, capital and labour


A national goals and policies cont1

(A) NATIONAL GOALS AND POLICIES cont’

  • The promotion of economic activities across provincial boundaries

  • The promotion of equal opportunity or equal access to government services.

  • The protection of the environment.


Chapter 2 the transportation planning process

(B) NATIONAL TRANSPORT POLICY, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The broad goal of transport should be the smooth and efficient interaction that allows society and the economy to assume their preferred form.


2 3 2 the link between planning and macro policies cont1

2.3.2 THE LINK BETWEEN PLANNING AND MACRO POLICIES cont’

To play this role, policies in the transport sector must be:

  • outward looking,

  • shaped by the needs of society in general,

  • of the users or customers of transport,

  • and of the economy that transport has to support.


2 3 2 the link between planning and macro policies cont2

2.3.2 THE LINK BETWEEN PLANNING AND MACRO POLICIES cont’


2 3 2 the link between planning and macro policies cont3

2.3.2 THE LINK BETWEEN PLANNING AND MACRO POLICIES cont’

  • Figure 2.2 indicates the relationship between transport policies and plans at different levels ofgovernment

  • National transport policy must also be governed by over-arching enabling legislation, which will specify national requirements to facilitate the implementation of transport policy at provincial and local levels


2 3 2 the link between planning and macro policies cont4

2.3.2 THE LINK BETWEEN PLANNING AND MACRO POLICIES cont’

  • The framework should also contain a description of the status of transport in each province in terms of key performance indicators (KPIs) specified in the legislation.

  • Provinces in turn wilt need to specify guidelines and requirements to the municipal levels to facilItate the co-ordination and implementation of provincial policy,


Chapter 2 the transportation planning process

(C) PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE INTEGRATED TRANSPORT PLANNING PROCESS

The needs of society are constantly changing. The following principles provide a framework for transport planning that should be appropriate to any situation whether provincial or municipal (local).

  • Planning as a continuous process

  • Balance between tong-term and short-term planning


Chapter 2 the transportation planning process

  • Realistic handling of future uncertainties

  • Balance between the elements of planning studies

  • Encouraging constructive public participation

  • Integration of transport and land use planning

  • Consideration of all modes

  • THE END


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