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Chapter 20. The Axial Skeleton. Skeletal system includes both:. Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Thoracic cage Appendicular skeleton Pectoral and pelvic girdles Upper and lower limbs. The Skull. The cranium. Cranial vault or calvaria

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chapter 20

Chapter 20

The Axial Skeleton

skeletal system includes both
Skeletal system includes both:
  • Axial skeleton
    • Skull
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
  • Appendicular skeleton
    • Pectoral and pelvic girdles
    • Upper and lower limbs
the cranium
The cranium
  • Cranial vault or calvaria
    • Superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull
  • Cranial floor or base
    • Anterior fossa
    • Middle fossa
    • Posterior fossa
the skull1
The skull
  • Consists of the cranium and the bones ofthe face
  • Sutures
    • Lambdoid-between occipital and parietal bones
    • Coronal-between parietal and frontal bones
    • Sagittal-between parietal bones
    • Squamous-between parietal and temporal bones
cranial bones
Cranial Bones
  • one occipital bone
    • foramen magnum
  • two parietal bones
  • one frontal bone
    • frontal sinuses
    • glabella
  • two temporal bones
    • auditory ossicles
  • one sphenoid
  • one ethmoid
occipital and parietal b ones
Occipital and Parietal Bones
  • Occipital bone
    • Foramen magnum
    • Occipital condyle
    • External occipital protuberance
  • Parietal bone
  • Frontal bone
    • Supraorbital foramen
    • Glabella
temporal bone1
Temporal bone
  • Squamous suture
  • Zygomatic process
    • Zygomatic arch
  • Mandibularfossa
  • External auditory meatus
  • Styloid process
temporal bone is divided in regions
Temporal bone is divided in regions
  • Mastoid process
    • Mastoiditis
    • Meningitis
  • Stylomastoid foramen
    • Passage for cranial nerve VII
  • Internal acustic meatus
    • Passage for cranial nerves VII and VIII
sphenoid bone
Sphenoid bone
  • Greater wings
  • Sellaturcica
    • For the pituitary gland
ethmoid bone
Ethmoid bone
  • Crista galli
    • Attachment of the dura mater
  • Cribiform plate
    • Passage of olfactory nerves
ethmoid bone1
Ethmoid bone
  • Perpendicular plate
    • Forms the superior part of the nasal septum
  • Superior and middle nasal conchae (turbinates)
    • Covered by mucosa
    • Warms and humidifies the air
facial bones
Facial bones
  • Maxillary bones
  • Mandible
  • Palatine bones
  • Nasal bones
  • Vomer
  • Inferior nasal conchae
  • Zygomatic bones
  • Lacrimal bones
maxillae
Maxillae
  • Alveolar margim
  • Palatine process- anterior hard palate
  • Incisive fossa- passage for nerves and blood vessels
vomer zygomatic and lacrimal bones
Vomer, Zygomatic and Lacrimal bones
  • Zygomaticbone
    • articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone forming the zygomaticarch
mandible
Mandible
  • Body- horizontal portion
  • Ramus-vertical portion
  • Mandibular condyle- articulates with temporal bone
  • Coronoid process
  • Angle
  • Alveolar margin- with sockets for the teeth
  • Mandibular foramen – site of Novocain injection
cranial foramens to identify
Cranial Foramens to identify
  • External view:
  • Supraorbitalforamen-for blood vessels and nerves
  • Infraorbital foramen-blood vessels and nerves
  • Mental foramen-blood vessels and nerves
  • Stylomastoidforamen- nerve VII
  • Carotid canal-for carotid artery
  • External auditorymeatus-leads to eardrum
  • Incisivefossa-for blood vessels and nerves
cranial foramens to identify1
Cranial Foramens to identify
  • Internal view
  • Optic canal-for optic nerve
  • Superior and inferior orbital fissure
  • “ROS”
    • Rotundum- for a branch of V
    • Ovale-for a branch of V
    • Spinosum-for middle meningeal artery
cranial foramens to identify2
Cranial Foramens to identify
  • Foramen lacerum-internal carotid
  • Jugularforamen-for jugular vein; IX, X,XI cranial nerves
  • Internal acusticmeatus-for VII,VIII
  • Hypoglossal canal-for XII
  • Foramen magnum-for spinal cord
vertebral column
Vertebral column
  • 7 cervical vertebrae
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae
  • 5 lumbar vertebrae
  • 5 sacrum fused vetebrae
  • 3-5 fused coccyx vertebrae
vertebral column1
Vertebral column
  • Intervertebral discs- pads of fibrocartilage between the vertebrae
    • Nucleus pulposus- central soft region
    • Annulus fibrosus- outer ring. Collagen fibers
    • Herniated disc- protusionof the nucleus pulposus
spinal curvatures1
Spinal curvatures
  • Four spinal curves- posterior view
    • Primary curvatures – present at birth
      • Thoracic - convex
      • Sacral- convex
    • Secondary curvatures – develops after birth
      • Cervical- concave
      • Lumbar- concave
structure of a typical vertebra
Structure of a typical vertebra
  • Body- rounded portion. Anterior part
  • Vertebral Foramen-for the spinal cord
  • Transverse process
  • Spinous process-single and posterior
  • Intervertebral foramina-it is seen when 2 vertebras are put together. Passage of the spinal nerves
cervical vertebra
Cervical vertebra
  • Transverse foraminas- only present in cervical vertebrae
  • Atlas or C1
    • No body
    • Join with the head and provides for range of motion (when you nod yes)
cervical vertebra1
Cervical vertebra
  • Axis or C2
    • Odontoid process or dens-allows rotation of the head (when you nod no)
thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
  • Spinous process-long and downward
  • Rib facet – for articulation with 1 rib
lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae
  • Massive body
  • Short and thick and more horizontal spinous processes
  • No rib facets
  • No transverse foramem
  • Superior and inferior articular processes
sacrum
Sacrum
  • Medial sacral crest-remnant of the spinous processes
  • Alae- formed by fusion of the transverse processes. It articulates with the hip bones
  • Sacral foramina- passage for blood vessels and nerves
  • Sacral canal- continuation of the verterbral canal
sacrum and coccyx
Sacrum and coccyx
  • Sacral hiatus-inferior opening of the sacral canal
  • Sacral promontory- rim on the anterior and superior part of the sacrum
  • Coccyx
    • Attached to the sacrum by ligaments
the bony thorax
The bony thorax
  • Sternum
    • Manubrium-articulates with the clavicle
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process-inferior end. Made of hyaline cartilage in children and is ossified in adults
    • Jugular notch
    • Sternal angle-between the body and the manubrium
the ribs
The ribs
  • Tubercle – is inferior
  • Costal groove –depression along the inferior side
  • Sternal end-articulates with sternum
types of ribs
Types of ribs
  • True
    • Ribs 1-7
    • Attached to the sternum through their own cartilage
types of ribs1
Types of ribs
  • False
    • 8-12
    • 8-10 are vertebrochondral ribs
      • Attaches to the sternum indireclty through the cartilage of the C7
    • 11-12 are floating ribs
      • No attachment to the sternum
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