Nanomaterial drug delivery
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Nanomaterial Drug Delivery. http://research.mdhs.unimelb.edu.au/event/nano-medicine-bio21-cluster-symposium. https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSh0iVqg8Z7WUm1a_XO7uTQQpHl67Lz1El1kl2YHlNy4qkCEz2KBQ. Group 5: Daniel Ehlers Daniel Barnes Ann-Marie Scarborough Nguyen Lam.

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Nanomaterial drug delivery

Nanomaterial Drug Delivery

http://research.mdhs.unimelb.edu.au/event/nano-medicine-bio21-cluster-symposium

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSh0iVqg8Z7WUm1a_XO7uTQQpHl67Lz1El1kl2YHlNy4qkCEz2KBQ

Group 5:

Daniel Ehlers

Daniel Barnes

Ann-Marie Scarborough

Nguyen Lam

Featuring:

Nanomaterials For Drug Delivery


Interactive presentation

Interactive Presentation

  • To view an interactive version of this presentation, visit the link below (recommended):

  • http://prezi.com/qa0bx-dztksu/untitled-prezi/


Nanomaterial drug delivery

Nanomaterials are the future of drug delivery

http://mayoresearch.mayo.edu/dev_lab/images/single_drug.gif

http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/01/nanorattle-drug-delivery.html

Drugs are able to reach their site of action more effectively


Nanomaterial drug delivery

Bodily system barriers are able to be broken with nanocarriers

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/mabi.201100419/asset/image_m/mcontent.jpg?v=1&s=2899b61a4ddaff99e1b18b7a79ea871a7f4eaabc

Advanced materials can target various cells, such as cancer cells.

http://ultraphyte.com/2012/02/26/nanorobot-detects-cancer/


Nanomaterial drug delivery

Drugs with different molecular shapes and chemical properties can be synthesized

Different properties results in greater possibilities

http://www.azonano.com/images/news/NewsImage_23414.jpg

http://sina.sharif.edu/~adeli/?view=Synthesis_of_Hybrid_Nano_Structures&id=15


Background information

Background Information

  • All drugs face several transport barriers

    • Plasma membrane

    • The acidic environment of endolysosomes

    • Nuclear membrane

    • Multiple drug resistance mechanism

      from their site of introduction to their molecular site of action.


Background information1

Background Information

https://dl-web.dropbox.com/Articles/1-s2.0-S0169409X1200021X-main.pdf?w=AACRdlAYxdLRb6iZvjRVrMMwvLN-ChawIar3xGlbaupaGw


Advantages

Advantages

High-resolution image of detonation nanodiamonds

1. Very small size

2.High surface-to-volume ratio

3. One or more therapeutic drugs can be attached to

http://nanoall.blogspot.com/2012/01/synthesis-of-metallic-nanoparticles.html


Advantages1

Advantages

4.Attach to specific target cells and organs with selected binding agents

5.Helps to avoid the fluctuations of drug (by using time-release)

https://dl-web.dropbox.com/Articles/1-s2.0-S0169409X1200021X-main.pdf?w=AACRdlAYxdLRb6iZvjRVrMMwvLN-ChawIar3xGlbaupaGw


Polymers and cancer cells

Polymers and Cancer Cells

  • Other polymers allow for easy binding to tumor sites

  • At the correct pH and/or [Cl-] of a tumor site, the drug can be released

  • Certain polymers allow for delivery past protective DNA barriers in a tumor cell

http://static5.businessinsider.com/image/500ff7b2eab8ea2b60000001-590/this-mix-of-polymers-and-cancer-medicines-would-then-attach-to-nanoparticles.jpg


Cylindrical miccles

Cylindrical Miccles

  • Initially block polymers

  • Hydrophillic end – causes them to form miccle shape with water

  • Hydrophobic end – Keeps them from being easily bound/absorbed to other things

  • Benefits:

    • Prolonged circulation

    • Reduction of off-target toxicity (less side effects)

    • Can be formed using existing drugs

http://news.rice.edu/images/media/2006RiceNews/1130_gold_nano.jpg


Pegylation of drugs

PEGylation of Drugs

  • Adding PEG (Polyethylene glycol) polymer to existing drug molecular structure

  • Benefits:

    • Increases drug half life

    • Increases drug solubility at site of action

    • Increases drug stability

    • Slows down drug metabolism through kidneys, etc.

http://www.peg-drug.com/images/peg-top_photo2.jpg


Ideal sirna cancer drug

Ideal siRNA Cancer Drug

  • siRNA – Small Interfering RNA can be inserted into a tumor cell to cause it to malfunction

  • Problem: Needs to be delivered to tumor site and not to healthy cells

  • In figure, nanomaterial (green) is attached to siRNA drug (purple ring)

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/337/6092/303/F1.large.jpg


Ideal sirna cancer drug1

Ideal siRNA Cancer Drug

  • Nanomaterial is PEGylated:

    • Increases drug half life

    • Increases drug solubility at site of action

    • Decreases interaction outside target side (and therefore side effects)

    • Increases drug stability

    • Slows down drug metabolism through kidneys, etc.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/337/6092/303/F1.large.jpg


Ideal sirna cancer drug2

Ideal siRNA Cancer Drug

  • Nanomaterial searches for biological signals of a cancer cell

    • Certain peptides have this ability

  • Nanomaterial is engineered to bind to the unique receptors on the cancer cell

http://www.alternative-cancer.net/images/cell_attack.jpg


Ideal sirna cancer drug3

Ideal siRNA Cancer Drug

  • Another problem: Overcome defenses in cytoplasm of cancer cell

  • Nanomaterial overcomes defenses and rapidly delivers siRNA drug into cell

  • siRNA modifies the cancer cell DNA and causes it to die

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/337/6092/303/F1.large.jpg


Specific cancer drug design carbon nanotubes

Specific Cancer Drug Design: Carbon Nanotubes

  • Antibodies are designed that will fight cancer cells

  • Carbon Nanotube carriers have molecular strands that contain the antibodies and a link system to cancer cells

  • Recognize cancer cells by pH, biological markers

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23143677


Specific cancer drug design carbon nanotubes1

Specific Cancer Drug Design: Carbon Nanotubes

  • Carbon Nanotubes can be PEGedand attached with antibodies to bring it specifically to a cancer cell

  • The drugs inside the nanotube can be released in the presence RF frequencies

  • Metal nanotubes also heat in presence of RF waves, and “burn up” cancer cells

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23143677


Specific cancer drug design nanodiamonds

Specific Cancer Drug Design: Nanodiamonds

  • Drug can be placed in nanodiamonds

  • Nanodiamonds contain receptors that allow them only to bind and react with tumor cells

  • Nanodiamonds release drug into tumor cell and result in highly effective treatment

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130415172308.htm


Assessment of work

Assessment of Work

  • The use of Nano-Diamonds and their effects on the PH increase solubility in the solution for several types of deliveries by making the pH closer to that of the natural body levels

  • Table 1

  • Plotted n value of the release of RB from carbon nanomaterials at pH 7.4 and pH 4.5.

  • n value at pH 7.4 n value at pH 4.5 Drug release mode

  • CB–RB 0.39 0.32 Fickian diffusion

  • CNT–RB 0.42 0.64 Fickian diffusion at pH 7.4,

  • anomalous transport at pH 4.5

  • f-CNT–RB 0.5 0.64 Anomalous transport

  • GO–RB 1 0.63 Case II transport at pH7.4,

  • anomalous transport at pH 4.5

  • Zhang and Olin Pg. 1251


Assessment of work1

Assessment of Work

  • In addition, they allow for a controlled time release of the drug for consistant delivery

  • Zhang and Olin pgl. 1250

Time (min)


Assessment of work2

Assessment of Work

  • Allows better ability to Penetrate the Plasma wall of the cells

  • Can release on correct rNA code recognition for needed antigen.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • The use of Nano-Diamonds allows the Pharmicutical Industry to be much more presice in drug delivery due to

    • pH Control

    • Time Release Control

    • rNA Release Control


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • It also allows a larger range of effective drugs to be administered from

    • Size Control

    • pH Control


Further research suggested

Further Research Suggested

  • Hazards/toxicity of particles

  • Cancer research

http://research.mdhs.unimelb.edu.au/event/nano-medicine-bio21-cluster-symposium

http://www.healingrosacea.com/images/nanomaterial-in-cancer-therapy1.jpeg

http://www.dddmag.com/sites/dddmag.com/files/legacyimages/Articles/2009_09/pnp.jpg


References

References

  • Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery. Jeffrey A. Hubbell and AshutoshChilkoti. Science 20 July 2012: 337 (6092), 303-305. [DOI:10.1126/science.1219657]

  • Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems. Badea, Ildiko and Kaur, Randeep. International Journal of Nanomedice. 8. Jan 2013. Web. 2 April 2013

  • Computational design of a CNT carrier for a high affinity bispecificanti-HER2 antibody based on trastuzumaband pertuzumabFabs. Salazar-Salinas Karim, Kubli-Garfias, Carlos, and Seminario, Jorge M. Springer-Verlag.


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