Chapter 9:  Cellular Respiration
Download
1 / 35

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration. Objectives The student is responsible for: The definitions of all bold faced words in the chapter Knowing the entire chapter. The student is not responsible for: Memorizing or drawing the structures of glycolysis or Kreb’s cycle.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration' - shaine-sanders


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration

  • Objectives

  • The student is responsible for:

    • The definitions of all bold faced words in the chapter

    • Knowing the entire chapter.

  • The student is not responsible for:

    • Memorizing or drawing the structures of glycolysis or Kreb’s cycle


Principles of Energy Harvest

Fermentation: decomposition of glucose without the use of oxygen

Cellular Respiration: oxygen is a reactant when glucose is broken down


Figure 9 1 energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems

There is an integral relationship between photosynthesis and respiration.

Figure 9.1 Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems

The production of ATP is an exergonic process


Figure 9 x1 atp
Figure 9.x1 ATP respiration.

Adenosine Triphosphate

ATP -> ADP + Pi

ADP  AMP + Pi


Figure 9 2 a review of how atp drives cellular work

Why do we care so much about ATP? respiration.

Figure 9.2 A review of how ATP drives cellular work


Figure 9 3 methane combustion as an energy yielding redox reaction
Figure 9.3 Methane combustion as an energy-yielding redox reaction

Oxidizing Agent: that substance that is being reduced.

O is “going” from O (no charge) to O2-.

Reducing Agent: that substance that is being oxidized.

C is gaining oxygen.


Figure 9 19 the catabolism of various food molecules

Various foods can be oxidized to produce ATP. reaction

Figure 9.19 The catabolism of various food molecules


Figure 9 4 nad as an electron shuttle

The molecule that is used to move hydrogen ions throughout the oxidation of food is NAD+. Therefore NAD+ is an oxidizing agent.

Figure 9.4 NAD+ as an electron shuttle

NAD+ + H+ NADH



Figure 9 6 an overview of cellular respiration layer 1
Figure 9.6 An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 1) the oxidation of food is NAD

But if we could get this pyruvate into the mitochondria we could make a whole lot more ATP!!




Figure 9 7 substrate level phosphorylation
Figure 9.7 Substrate-level phosphorylation the oxidation of food is NAD

What is this substrate-level phosphorylation?

This is when a phosphate group is moved from an organic compound to ADP.

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

When electrons and H+ are used to make ATP.


Figure 9 8 the energy input and output of glycolysis
Figure 9.8 The energy input and output of glycolysis the oxidation of food is NAD

Couldn’t these NADH’s that are made be used to make ATP?






Figure 9.10 Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

Could the NADH produced here be used to make ATP?


Figure 9 11 a closer look at the krebs cycle layer 1
Figure 9.11 A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 1) junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

Keep track of the number of carbons!!


Figure 9 11 a closer look at the krebs cycle layer 2
Figure 9.11 A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 2) junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

More NADHs!!!


Figure 9 11 a closer look at the krebs cycle layer 3
Figure 9.11 A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 3) junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle


Figure 9 11 a closer look at the krebs cycle layer 4
Figure 9.11 A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 4) junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle


Figure 9 12 a summary of the krebs cycle
Figure 9.12 A summary of the Krebs cycle junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle


Figure 9 13 free energy change during electron transport

NADH and FADH junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle2 deliver electrons to different locations in the ETC.

Figure 9.13 Free-energy change during electron transport

The role of oxygen is to serve as a hydrogen ion acceptor to form water.


Figure 9 14 atp synthase a molecular mill

ATP Synthase junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

Chemiosmosis: the coupling of the movement of H+ through a protein complex (ATP Synthase) making ATP.

Figure 9.14 ATP synthase, a molecular mill


Figure 9 15 chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to atp synthesis
Figure 9.15 Chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis

A Proton-Motive Force is produced


Figure 9.16 Review: how each molecule of glucose yields many ATP molecules during cellular respiration


Figure 9 17a fermentation
Figure 9.17a Fermentation many ATP molecules during cellular respiration


Figure 9 17b fermentation
Figure 9.17b Fermentation many ATP molecules during cellular respiration


Figure 9 18 pyruvate as a key juncture in catabolism
Figure 9.18 Pyruvate as a key juncture in catabolism many ATP molecules during cellular respiration


Figure 9 19 the catabolism of various food molecules1

Power Bars? many ATP molecules during cellular respiration

Luna Bars?

Promax?

Goo?

Figure 9.19 The catabolism of various food molecules


Versatility of Catabolism many ATP molecules during cellular respiration

  • Use of Proteins

    • Proteins  amino acids and then the amino acids must have their amino groups removed before being used as an energy source. So all the energy bars that have amino acids in them are at least one step closer to being used for energy than a protein.

    • Fats must go through beta oxidation which takes a fat and breaks off 2 carbon fragments from the fatty acids and these 2 carbon fragments enter at acetyl-CoA.


Figure 9 20 the control of cellular respiration
Figure 9.20 The control of cellular respiration  many ATP molecules during cellular respiration

  • The Control of Cellular Respiration

  • PFK: allosteric enzyme

    • Receptor sites for ATP, AMP and citrate

    • ATP: inhibitor

    • AMP: stimulator

    • Citrate: inhibitor


The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis many ATP molecules during cellular respiration

Earliest organisms were in an anaerobic environment (3.5 billion yrs ago)

Glycolysis was probably used as an energy making process

Oxygen accumulated about 2.7 billion years ago

Glycolysis is the most widespread pathway amongst organisms suggesting it evolved early on.

Glycolysis requires only the cytoplasm and membrane-bound organelles were not present until eukaryotic cells appeared (2 billion years after prokaryotes)


ad