Ch 4 chemical foundations
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CH 4: Chemical Foundations. The Elements and the Periodic Table. The Elements. Information found on the periodic table Symbol Carbon Oxygen Cobalt. The Elements. Information found on the periodic table State of matter Color of symbol indicates state of matter Black = solid

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Ch 4 chemical foundations

CH 4: Chemical Foundations

The Elements and the Periodic Table


The elements
The Elements

  • Information found on the periodic table

    • Symbol

      • Carbon

      • Oxygen

      • Cobalt


The elements1
The Elements

  • Information found on the periodic table

    • State of matter

      • Color of symbol indicates state of matter

        • Black = solid

        • Blue = liquid

        • Red = gas

        • Outline = synthetically prepared

    • Density


Periodic table
Periodic Table

  • Periods – rows of elements on the periodic table

  • Groups – columns of elements on the periodic table

    • Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties

      • due to a similar arrangement of their outermost electrons (chapter 11)


Periodic table1
Periodic Table

  • Re-labeling of your periodic table!

  • Group Names

    • I A = Alkali metals

    • II A = Alkaline earth metals

    • VII A = Halogens

    • VIII (A) = Noble gases

      • Inert

  • Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

    • Transition metals too!


Metals
Metals

  • _____________ properties

    • Solids

    • Shiny (lustrous)

    • Malleable

    • Ductile

    • Good conductors of heat and electricity


Metals1
Metals

  • Chemical property

    • Form ionic compounds

      • Lose electrons to form + charged ions


Nonmetals
Nonmetals

  • Physical properties

    • Many are gases, some solids, one a liquid

    • Brittle if a solid

    • Dull if a solid

    • Poor conductors of heat and electricity

      • Therefore, they are good insulators.


Nonmetals1
Nonmetals

  • Chemical properties

    • Form ionic compounds

      • Gain electrons to form negatively charged ions

    • Form molecules when they react with nonmetals


Metalloids
Metalloids

  • Examples:

  • Physical properties

    • Solids

    • Can be formed into brittle shapes

    • Have a dull shine

    • Ability to conduct heat and electricity depends upon conditions

      • Semi-conductors


Metalloids1
Metalloids

  • Chemical properties

    • Can form ions and/or molecules


Natural state of the elements
Natural State of the Elements

  • Atomic elements

    • Examples:

  • Molecular elements

    • Examples:


Molecules
Molecules

  • Molecule – 2 or more nonmetal atoms joined by chemical bonds

    • Molecules vs. compounds


Diatomic elements
Diatomic Elements

  • 7 elements are naturally found as diatomic molecules, not individual atoms

    • H2

    • N2

    • O2

    • F2

    • Cl2

    • Br2

    • I2


Allotropes of carbon
Allotropes of Carbon

  • Allotrope – different forms of a given element

    • Graphite

    • Diamond

    • “Buckyballs”


Graphite
Graphite

  • Layers of ringed carbon structures

    • Each C is bonded to 3 other C


Diamond
Diamond

  • A diamond is a gigantic molecule, each C atom is bonded to 4 other C atoms


Buckminsterfullerene
Buckminsterfullerene

  • C60

  • “Buckyball”


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