Crisis of the late middle ages
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Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. In the century between 1340s to 1450s, Europe unraveled economically, religiously, militarily and culturally. Slide 5 of 20. I. Black Death A. Overpopulation of Europe 1. Productive capacity of Europe is reached

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Crisis of the Late Middle Ages

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Crisis of the late middle ages

Crisis of the Late Middle Ages

In the century between 1340s to 1450s, Europe unraveled economically, religiously, militarily and culturally.


Crisis of the late middle ages

Slide 5 of 20


Crisis of the late middle ages

I. Black Death

A. Overpopulation of Europe

1. Productive capacity of Europe is reached

2. Less productive land pressed to service

3. Famine of 1315-22 kills 10% of Europe

B. Plague is nature’s reward for growth of trade

C. Third of the population dead in three years


Crisis of the late middle ages

I. Black Death

C. Effects of the Black Death

1. Massacre of the Jews

2. Decline in trade, production

3. Inflation

4. Labor shortage

a. hurts owners

b. helps laborers

5. Peasant uprisings

6. Credibility of church in question


Crisis of the late middle ages

II. Decline of the Church

A. Victory of Kings over the Popes

B. French dominance and popes' removal to Avignon

C. Black Death

D. Catherine of Siena fights to restore the church


Crisis of the late middle ages

Papal Palace in Avignon


Crisis of the late middle ages

II. Decline of the Church

E. Great Schism (1378-1418)

1. Two popes up to 1409

a. Nations choose sides

2. Three popes (1409-1418)

3. Damage to authority of popes

F. Kingdoms impose limits on papal power

1. England in 1351

2. France in 1438 (Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges)

3. Germany 1439 (Pragmatic Sanction of Mainz)

4. Means the creation of national churches, not

universal church


Crisis of the late middle ages

II. Decline of the Church

G. Popes reduced to being Italian princes

1. Example of Alexander VI (1492-1503)


Crisis of the late middle ages

  • III. Late Medieval Innovations

  • Search for renewed faith

  • 1. Mysticism

  • 2. Conciliarism

  • 3. Wycliffe and Hus

  • B. Humanism– a focus on the human dimension

  • 1. Humanism in art

  • a. Giotto

  • b. Jan Van Eyck


Crisis of the late middle ages

Berlinghieri

St. Francis

1235


Crisis of the late middle ages

Cimabue

Mary Enthroned

Florence, 1280


Crisis of the late middle ages

Giotto

Virgin & Child

Enthroned

Florence, 1310


Crisis of the late middle ages

Giotto

Lamentation

(1305)


Crisis of the late middle ages

Jan Van Eyck Madonna and Canon Van der Paele 1436


Crisis of the late middle ages

Ambroglio Lorenzetti,

Effects of Good Government in the City

1340


Crisis of the late middle ages

III. Late Medieval Innovations

B. Humanism– a focus on the human dimension

1. Humanism in art

a. Giotto

b. Jan Van Eyck

2. Humanism in literature

a. passion for secular Roman poetry

b. Petrarch

c. Pisan


Crisis of the late middle ages

IV. Hundred Years’ War (1337-1456)

A. Great war between the

two greatest monarchies

B. Edward III’s motives

1. Restore English holdings

2. Control Flanders

3. Claim to French throne

4. Chivalric glory


Crisis of the late middle ages

IV. Hundred Years’ War

B. Superior tactics of the English forces

1. Battle of Crecy (1346)


Crisis of the late middle ages

IV. Hundred Years’ War

B. Superior tactics of the English forces

1. Battle of Crecy (1346)

a. the longbow

2. The Black Prince and Battle of Poitiers (1356)

3. Chivalry not dead yet, but dying


Crisis of the late middle ages

IV. Hundred Years’ War

C. Henry V

1. Victory at Agincourt, 1415

2. Agincourt Carol

3. Wins French crown

4. Dies in 1422, leaving infant son


Crisis of the late middle ages

Agincourt Carol (English, c.1415)

Deo gracias, Anglia, redde pro victoria!

Our King went forth to Normandy

With grace and might of chivalry

There God for him wrought marvelously:

Wherefore England may call and cry Deo gracias

Then went him forth, our king comely,

In Agincourt field he fought manly;

Through grace of God most marvelously,

He had both field and victory.

Deo gracias


Crisis of the late middle ages

The lords, earls and barons

Were slain and taken in that full soon,

And some were brought to London

With joy and bliss and great renoun.

Deo gracias

Almighty God he keep our king.

His people, and all his well-willing.

And give them grace without ending;

Then may we call and savely sing:

Deo gracias.


Crisis of the late middle ages

IV. Hundred Years’ War

D. Joan of Arc (1412-31)

1. Peasant girl

2. Visions at 12 of leading France

3. Seeks prince at 16

4. Victory at Orleans

5. Crowns prince as King

6. Burned as a witch by English

7. Sainted in 1920

E. National identity

1. Henry V in song and plays

2. Joan and national destiny


Crisis of the late middle ages

V. End of Middle Ages

A. End of era of knights

B. End of the predominance of the church

C. Rise of Humanism

D. Emergence of nations


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