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Warm Up:. Review: The Treatment of Slaves in Rome and China. Vocabulary . Qin Shi Huangdi Han Chang’an Gentry. Questions. What political philosophy was the basis for the Qin dynasty? How was this philosophy applied in China?

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Warm up

Warm Up:

Review: The Treatment of Slaves in Rome and China


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • Qin

  • Shi Huangdi

  • Han

  • Chang’an

  • Gentry


Questions

Questions

  • What political philosophy was the basis for the Qin dynasty? How was this philosophy applied in China?

  • How did the Qin government attempt to unify Chinese civilization?

  • How did the Han choose workers for government service? Who did this system favor?

  • What was China’s most important export commodity?

  • What led to the fall of the Han dynasty?


Chapter 5

Chapter 5

The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

A. Resources and Population

  • Agriculture

  • Primary source of wealth in China

  • main tax was percentage of annual harvest

  • Funded government

  • Fed population of large cities

  • Spurred development of system of canals connecting the Yangzi and Yellow River to transport crops

  • Government collected and stored surplus grain in prosperous times to be sold at reasonable prices during shortages


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e1

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

2. Population

  • Large population centered in eastern China

    -Yellow and Yangzi River Valleys

  • Able bodied men:

  • donated one month of labor to government projects

    -Building palaces, temples, roads, excavating and maintaining canals, working on imperial estates, working in mines

  • 2 years of military service

  • Large population of free peasants contributed taxes and services to the state


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e2

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

3. The Han

  • Han- Ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley

  • Ethnic Han Chinese expanded at the expense of other ethnic groups.

  • Expanded into areas that were suitable for settled agriculture.

  • They did not expand into areas that were suitable only for nomadic economies.


Warm up1

Warm Up:

Compare and Contrast Confucianism and Legalism


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e3

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e..

B. Hierarchy, Obedience and Belief

  • Family Structure

  • Family was the basic unit of society

  • Conceived as an unbroken chain of generations

  • Chinese believed ancestors maintained an ongoing interest in lives of family members

  • Ancestor Worship - Chinese consulted, appeased and venerated ancestors to gain their favor

  • Duty of each generation to have sons to maintain family, provided a kind of immortality to the deceased


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e4

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

2. Confucianism

  • The teachings of Confucius were a fundamental source of values for family, social, and political organization

    Basic values:

  • Loyalty, obedience to authority, respect for elders and ancestors, concern for honor and appropriate conduct

  • Hierarchy of state mirrored hierarchy of family


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e5

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

3. Women

Three submissions

  • When young to father, when married to husband, when widowed to son


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e6

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

4. Belief

  • Divinity in nature

  • Shrines to natural phenomenon (wind, rain, rivers, mountains)

  • FengShui – used to determine favorable orientation of buildings and graves

  • Believed supernatural forces flowed through the landscape


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e7

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

C. The First Chinese Empire 221-207 B.C.E

  • Qin Dynasty 221-207 BCE

  • First time China was unified

  • Shi Huangdi – first emperor


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e8

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

2. Legalism

  • Totalitarian government subordinated individual to needs of the state

  • Ruler was supreme

  • Imposed discipline through rigid application of rewards and punishments


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e9

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

3. Consolidation of Power

  • Eliminated land owning aristocracy

  • Abolished primogeniture- right of eldest son to inherit property

  • Broke up large estates among several heirs

  • Abolished slavery

  • Created a free peasantry who provided labor, military service and taxes


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e10

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

4. Standardization

  • Standard weights, measures and currency

  • Uniform law code

  • Common system of writing


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e11

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

5. Transportation and Protection

  • Built thousands of miles of roads

    -Allowed quick movement of army

  • Built canals to connect river systems

  • Began frontier wall to protect from invading nomads

    - Precursor to the Great Wall


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e12

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

6. Collapse

  • Financial exploitation, harsh legal punishments and demand for forced labor led to rebellion


Tomb of shi huangdi

Tomb of Shi Huangdi


Tomb of shi huangdi1

Tomb of Shi Huangdi

Artist rendering of Shi Huangdi’s Map Room


China dynasties of power video

China:Dynasties of Power Video


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e13

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

D. The Long Reign of the Han (206 B.C.E. -220 C.E.)

  • Consolidation

  • Liu Bang, a peasant who defeated all rival established new dynasty, the Han

  • Combined Legalist government with Confucian ideology

  • System of administration became standard for later ages


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e14

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

2. Military Expansion

South to:

  • Fujan, Guangdong and present day north Vietnam

    North to:

  • Manchuria and present day North Korea

    West to:

  • Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang

  • Consolidated Chinese control of Silk Road


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e15

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e16

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

3. The Emperor

  • “Son of Heaven”

  • Chosen to rule in accordance to Mandate of Heaven

  • Center of government and society

  • Regarded as a divinity, his word was law

  • Lived in seclusion


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e17

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

4. The Government

  • Prime Minister, Civil Service Directory and nine ministers with military, economic and legal responsibilities

  • Depended on local officials for day-to-day administration of far flung territories

  • Local officials collected taxes, regulated conscription for army and labor projects


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e18

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

5. The Gentry

  • Next class in wealth below the aristocracy

  • Rural aristocracy was excluded from political posts

  • Members of the gentry could afford education at universities

  • Students from universities were appointed to government post

    -Studied Confucian classics

  • Bureaucrats became a new aristocracy

  • Benefits included preferential treatment in legal system and exclusion from military service


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e19

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

6. Daoism

  • Became popular with common people

  • Enlightenment achieved through solitary contemplation, not education

  • Skeptical of age old beliefs

  • Rejected hierarchy, rules and rituals of Confucianism

  • Urged acceptance of disorder, denial of ambition, contentment with simple pleasures, trust of instincts


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e20

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

E. Technology and Trade

  • Metallurgy

  • China advanced from bronze to iron by about 500b.c.e.

  • Chinese metallurgist employed most advanced techniques in the world


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e21

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

2. Advances

  • Crossbow & Calvary helped repel nomads

  • Watermill harnessed the power of running water to grind grain

  • Horse collar that did not restrict breathing

  • Developed paper


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e22

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

3. Movement

  • Road building enabled movement of military forces and supplies

  • Courier systems for carrying government communications

  • Rivers connected by canals


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e23

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

4. Urbanization

  • Significant growth in the size and number of urban areas.

  • From 10 to 30 percent of the population of Han China lived in towns.


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e24

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

5. The Silk Road

  • China had a monopoly on manufacture of silk

  • Chinese government used military force to control trade along Silk Road


Ii the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e25

II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.

F. Decline of the Han

1. High cost of maintaining security along frontiers

2. Nobles and merchants built large landowning's at expense of small farmers

  • large landholders were able to resist taxation and became independent of government control

    3. System of military conscription broke down

  • the central government had to rely on mercenaries whose loyalty was questionable.


Iii imperial parallels

III.Imperial Parallels

A.Similarities

1.The Han and Roman Empires were similar in respect to their family structure and values, their patterns of land tenure, taxation, and administration, and in their empire building and its consequences for the identity of the conquered areas.

2.Both empires faced common problems in terms of defense, and found their domestic economies undermined by their military expenditures.

3.Both empires were overrun by new peoples who were then deeply influenced by the imperial cultures of Rome and of China.


Iii imperial parallels1

III.Imperial Parallels

B.Differences

1.In China, the imperial model was revived and the territory of the Han Empire re-unified. The former Roman Empire was never again reconstituted.

  • Historians have tried to explain this difference by pointing to differences between China and the Roman world in respect to:

  • the concept of the individual, the greater degree of social mobility in Rome than in Han China, and the different political ideologies and religions of the two empires.


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