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FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 1. The diagrams below show a person moving a 50-kilogram object up a ramp. In which diagram is there the least amount of friction on the object?. 3. The diagram below shows a stationary cart on a

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FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE

1. The diagrams below show a person moving a

50-kilogram object up a ramp. In which diagram

is there the leastamount of friction on the object?

3.The diagram below shows a stationary cart on a

frictionless surface. Two unequal opposing forces are about

to be applied to the cart.

If the unequal opposing forces are applied to the cart at the same time, what will occur?

(1) The cart will move to the left.

(2) The cart will move to the right.

(3) The cart will alternate between moving left and right.

(4) The cart will remain stationary.

2.Which energy source is a nonrenewable resource?

(1) solar (3) moving water

(2) wind (4) fossil fuel

4.The pie chart below compares the amounts of energy from different sources used in the United States each year.

Which two energy sources together provide more than 50% of the energy needs of the United States?

nuclear and natural gas

oil and coal

hydropower and oil

natural gas and coal

5.The diagram below shows the steps necessary to produce the energy needed to run a hair dryer.

As it moves from location A to location D in the diagram, the energy stored in the coal

(1) is converted to solar energy (3) is recycled

(2) reduces the friction in the hair dryer (4) is transformed

6.The illustration below shows an example of energy changing forms.

Which changes in energy form are illustrated in the diagram?

(1) electrical → sound → light and mechanical

(2) mechanical → light → sound and electrical

(3) sound → mechanical → light and electrical

(4) light → electrical → mechanical and sound

7. Which graph below shows an object slowing down?

8. The cartoon below shows a humorous view of a law of motion.

Which statement best summarizes the scientific concept shown in the cartoon?

(1) A falling body accelerates at a constant speed.

(2) The motion of an object is constantly changing due to magnetic forces.

(3) The force of friction causes an object in motion to move faster.

(4) A body in motion will remain in motion unless influenced by an outside force.

*Base your answers to questions 9 through 12 on the diagram and information below.

A student made a rocket balloon using an inflated balloon, a straw, a long piece of string, two poles, and

some tape. It looked similar to the diagram below.

AIR

BALLOON

9. On the diagram above draw and label arrows to show the motion of the air and the motion of the balloon

that would occur when the student releases the inflated balloon.

10. Why is marking the starting position important to calculate the average speed of the balloon?

_______________________________________________________________________________

11. How would taping a coin (adding mass) to the balloon affect the overall motion of the balloon?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

12. If the string were extremely long, what would eventually happen to the motion of the balloon?

______________________________________________________________________________________

TO CORRECTLY MEASURE DISTANCE (STARTING POINT).

IT WILL SLOW IT DOWN DUE TO INCREASED MASS.

FRICTION WOULD SLOW IT DOWN AND THEN STOP ITS MOTION.

13. The diagram below shows two dogs pulling

on a rope with constant but unequal forces.

17. The diagram below shows a pinwheel rotating above

a lit candle. The arrows indicate the direction of air flow.

In which direction will both dogs move?

(1) east (2) west (3) north (4) south

14. The illustration below shows a student

approaching the door to a building.

Which energy transformation is best shown in this diagram?

(1) heat to mechanical (3) sound to heat

(2) mechanical to light (4) heat to sound

18. Which two factors determine the gravitational attraction

between two objects?

(1) time and temperature (3) shape and orbital speed

(2) color and hardness (4) mass and distance apart

Which two simple machines are being used

to enable the student to reach the door?

(1) inclined plane and pulley

(2) lever and wheel-and-axle

(3) pulley and lever

(4) wheel-and-axle and inclined

15. A television set changes electrical energy to

sound and light energy. In this process, some

energy is

(1) created (3) changed to matter

(2) destroyed (4) changed to heat

16. Which two factors determine the pull of gravitational attraction between two objects?

(1) time and temperature

(2) shape and orbital speed

(3) color and hardness

(4) mass and distance apart

19. The diagram below shows a student using a spring

scale to pull a wooden block up a ramp that is resting on a

stack of books.

Which change would require more force to move the wooden

block up the ramp?

(1) Have the student use two hands.

(2) Reduce the mass of the wooden block.

(3) Restack the books so the thinnest book is on the bottom.

(4) Glue sandpaper to the surface of the ramp.

20. The wheels and gears of a machine are greased in

order to decrease _____________.

(1) potential energy (3) output

(2) efficiency (4) friction

21. The diagram below shows a boulder

rolling down a hill into a valley and then up

the opposite hill.

24. Which setup below would require the least force to

lift a 100-gram mass a distance of 10 centimeters?

A

D

C

B

At which position does the boulder have

the greatest kinetic energy?

(1) A (3) C

(2) B (4) D

22. The drawing below shows a person about

to lift a book using a ruler and pencil.

that shows two students ready to dive into a pool.

FULCRUM

This drawing illustrates an example of which

simple machine?

(1) gear (2) pulley (3) balance (4) lever

23. Which object represents a simple machine?

25. Explain why student B has more potential energy than

student A.

________________________________________________\

26. Student A dives from the board into the water. Explain

why student A’s kinetic energy decreases as the student

enters the water.

________________________________________________

STUDENT B IS HIGHER UP = PE

WATER SLOWS HIS MOVEMENT.

*Base your answers to questions 27-30 on the illustration below, which shows a number of activities

happening on a sunny day.

27. What is the original source of energy for all activities?

___________________________________________

28. Identify one activity that requires the use of fossil fuels.

___________________________________________

29. Identify one renewable resource in the diagram.

___________________________________________

30. An energy transformation occurs when one form of

energy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces below to

describe an energy transformation that occurs as the

children play baseball.

_________________________________ is changed to

_________________________________

THE SUN

CAR, GAS GRILL, FUEL TRUCK

SUN, WATER

CHEMICAL

MECHANICAL

*Base your answers to questions 31-33 on diagram 1 & 2 below. The amount of force required to keep

the same block of wood moving across a tabletop is shown in the diagrams.

31. What is the name of the device in the

diagrams used to measure force.

• (1) spring scale (3) voltmeter

• (2) thermometer (4) graduated cylinder

• 32. What change could be made in the setup

• in diagram 1 to increase the amount of force

• necessary to move the block of wood?

• 33. Explain why the round pencils in diagram

• 2 decrease the amount of force necessary to

• move the block of wood

MORE WOOD, HEAVIER OBJECT, MAKE SURFACE ROUGH

32._____________________________________________________________________________________

33._____________________________________________________________________________________

CHANGES SLIDING FRICTION TO ROLLING FRICTION.

*Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a set of materials that a science teacher used to demonstrate motion. The rubber band has been stretched with a string that has been tied to the nail. A weight is resting on the platform. The platform is resting on several round pencils on a tabletop.

34. On the diagram draw an arrow to represent the direction the wooden platform will move when the lit match burns through the string and the weight is propelled from the platform.

35. The table below lists four changes to the materials in the diagram. Will the changes cause the distance the wooden

platform moves to decrease, increase, or remain the same? For each change in the left column, circle your answer in the

right column.

*Base your answers to questions 36 &37 on the diagram of a moving car below. The diagram shows

energy transformations.

36. What is the sequence of the energy transformations

represented in the diagram?

(1) mechanical → chemical → solar

(2) solar → electrical → mechanical

(3) mechanical → electrical → solar

(4) solar → chemical → electrical

______________________________________________________________________________________

DECREASE POLLUTION, SAVE ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT…

*Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information and diagram below.

A rock hanging from a spring scale is being lowered into a graduated cylinder containing water. Figure A shows the reading on the spring scale before the rock is lowered into the water. Figure B shows the reading on the spring scale when the rock is in the water. The reading on the spring scale in figure A is greater than the reading on the spring scale in figure B.

38. Explain why the spring scale shows a greater reading in figure A than in figure B.

THE FORCE OF WATER (BUOYANCY) PUSHING UP ON THE ROCK.

39. Explain why placing the rock in the water causes the water level to rise.

THE ROCK DISPLACES THE WATER MAKING THE VOLUME OF THE WATER RISE.

*Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below. The diagram shows wind turbines that are used

to generate electricity.

40. Describe one advantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to produce electricity.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

41. Describe one disadvantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to generate electricity.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

IT PROVIDES CLEAN ENERGY (NO POLLUTANTS).

IT DEPENDS ON WIND CONDITIONS ONLY.

47. The diagram below shows a spinning water sprinkler.

Water comes through a hose and is sprayed by the sprinkler.

Which principle best explains why the sprinkler spins?

42. Moving water in a river is considered a renewable resource because it:

(1) carries dissolved oxygen

(2) easily erodes sediments

(3) is made of natural gas

(4) can be recycled by nature over time

43. Which event is a chemical change?

(1) The baseball strikes the roof.

(2) The roof of the car dents.

(3) The paint cracks and chips.

(4) The exposed metal rusts

44. Which process is an example of a physical change?

(1) wood burning (3) ice melting

(2) iron rusting (4) milk souring

(1) Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

(2) Solids are usually more dense than liquids.

(3) Energy is released when water condenses.

(4) Substances expand when heated & contract when cooled.

48. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable?

(1) oil (2) moving water (3) sunlight (4) biomass

49. The gravitational force between two objects depends

on the distance between the objects and each object’s

(1) mass (3) pressure

(2) volume (4) temperature

45. Which statement best describes the energy changes

that occur while a child is riding on a sled down a steep, snow-covered hill?

Kinetic energy decreases and potential

energy increases.

(2) Kinetic energy increases

and potential energy decreases.

(3) Both potential energy and

kinetic energy decrease.

(4) Both potential energy and

kinetic energy increase

50. Which sequence of energy transformations occurs

after a battery-operated flashlight is turned on?

(1) electrical → light → chemical

(2) electrical → chemical → light

(3) chemical → light → electrical

(4) chemical → electrical → light

46. The diagram below shows a hammer being used by a person to remove a nail from a piece of wood.

51. All matter is made up of particles called

(1) cells (3) atoms

(2) molecules (4) compounds

52. The force of an object, with a certain mass accelerating

at a certain rate, can be determined by using the equation below.

force = mass ╳ acceleration

Which object would have the greatest force?

(1) a 5-kg object accelerating at 10 m/s2

(2) a 5-kg object accelerating at 20 m/s2

(3) a 20-kg object accelerating at 4 m/s2

(4) a 20-kg object accelerating at 3 m/s2

The hammer is being used as which type of

simple machine?

(1) wheel and axle (3) lever

(2) inclined plane (4) pulley

53. The diagrams below show smooth blocks of wood being pushed across the same surface. The mass of the block

and amount of force applied are labeled in each diagram. In which diagram would the block of wood have the

greatest acceleration?

54. The graph below shows the distance traveled by four cars, A, B, C, and D, over a period of time,

*The average speed of a moving object can be determined by using the equation below.

Average speed = distance or v = d / t

Time

Which car traveled at an average speed of 20 kilometers per hour?

(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D

*Base your answers to questions 55 & 56 on the information and diagram below.

The diagram below shows a toy airplane. The propeller is turned twenty times, which twists the rubber band connected to it.

When the propeller is released, the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns at a high speed, enabling the airplane to fly.

55. What type of energy results when the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns, enabling the plane to fly?

________________________________________________

56. Identify one change that could be made that would make

the toy airplane fly at a different speed.

________________________________________________

KINETIC ENERGY / MECHANICAL ENERGY

WINDING IT MORE (INCREASE POTENTIAL).

57. A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target. In which diagram does the bow and

arrow have the greatest amount of potential energy?

62. The diagram shows a lever that can be used to lift

a person. The fulcrum is the point where the lever pivots.

58. The diagram below shows a home with a solar

heating system.

Describe one change that could be made to the lever to

decrease the input force needed to lift the person.

____________________________________________

What is the original source of energy

for this heating system?

(1) heated water (3) sunlight

(2) heated air (4) water pump

MOVE THE FULCRUM TO THE RIGHT

59. Which energy source is considered

nonrenewable?

(1) moving water (3) wind

(2) fossil fuel (4) biomass

60. Which type of energy in gasoline is

transformed into mechanical energy in

a motorcycle engine?

(1) chemical (3) magnetic

(2) nuclear (4) electrical

61. A student pushes against a tree with a

force of 10 newtons (N). The tree does not

move. What is the amount of force exerted

by the tree on the student?

(1) 0 N (3) 10 N

(2) 5 N (4) 20 N

below. The diagrams show a student using a bow and

arrow. The bow string on the bow is used to propel the

arrow forward.

63. State one change the student could make, without

changing the angle at which the bow is held, so that the

arrow would travel a greater distance.

_____________________________________________

64. Describe how gravity affects the path of the arrow

after it has been released.

_____________________________________________

PULL THE STRING BACK MORE.

IT IMMEDIATELY PULLS DOWN ON IT.

65. The diagrams below show two ways of loading a box into a truck.

The person using the track with the rollers uses less energy to load the box because the rollers reduce the

(1) mass of the box (3) force of gravity

(2) distance traveled by the box (4) force of friction

*Base your answers to questions 66 & 67 on the diagram below. The diagram shows one type of power facility that

provides electricity for use in houses.

66. What phase change occurs in the boiler?

____________________ phase to

phase.

67. Name one fossil fuel that may be burned in this furnace.

_________________________

LIQUID (WATER)

GAS (WATER VAPOR)

OIL, NATURAL GAS, COAL