FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 1. The diagrams below show a person moving a 50-kilogram object up a ramp. In which diagram is there the least amount of friction on the object?. 3. The diagram below shows a stationary cart on a
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FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE
1. The diagrams below show a person moving a
50-kilogram object up a ramp. In which diagram
is there the leastamount of friction on the object?
3.The diagram below shows a stationary cart on a
frictionless surface. Two unequal opposing forces are about
to be applied to the cart.
If the unequal opposing forces are applied to the cart at the same time, what will occur?
(1) The cart will move to the left.
(2) The cart will move to the right.
(3) The cart will alternate between moving left and right.
(4) The cart will remain stationary.
2.Which energy source is a nonrenewable resource?
(1) solar (3) moving water
(2) wind (4) fossil fuel
4.The pie chart below compares the amounts of energy from different sources used in the United States each year.
Which two energy sources together provide more than 50% of the energy needs of the United States?
nuclear and natural gas
oil and coal
hydropower and oil
natural gas and coal
5.The diagram below shows the steps necessary to produce the energy needed to run a hair dryer.
As it moves from location A to location D in the diagram, the energy stored in the coal
(1) is converted to solar energy (3) is recycled
(2) reduces the friction in the hair dryer (4) is transformed
6.The illustration below shows an example of energy changing forms.
Which changes in energy form are illustrated in the diagram?
(1) electrical → sound → light and mechanical
(2) mechanical → light → sound and electrical
(3) sound → mechanical → light and electrical
(4) light → electrical → mechanical and sound
7. Which graph below shows an object slowing down?
8. The cartoon below shows a humorous view of a law of motion.
Which statement best summarizes the scientific concept shown in the cartoon?
(1) A falling body accelerates at a constant speed.
(2) The motion of an object is constantly changing due to magnetic forces.
(3) The force of friction causes an object in motion to move faster.
(4) A body in motion will remain in motion unless influenced by an outside force.
*Base your answers to questions 9 through 12 on the diagram and information below.
A student made a rocket balloon using an inflated balloon, a straw, a long piece of string, two poles, and
some tape. It looked similar to the diagram below.
9. On the diagram above draw and label arrows to show the motion of the air and the motion of the balloon
that would occur when the student releases the inflated balloon.
10. Why is marking the starting position important to calculate the average speed of the balloon?
11. How would taping a coin (adding mass) to the balloon affect the overall motion of the balloon?
12. If the string were extremely long, what would eventually happen to the motion of the balloon?
TO CORRECTLY MEASURE DISTANCE (STARTING POINT).
IT WILL SLOW IT DOWN DUE TO INCREASED MASS.
FRICTION WOULD SLOW IT DOWN AND THEN STOP ITS MOTION.
13. The diagram below shows two dogs pulling
on a rope with constant but unequal forces.
17. The diagram below shows a pinwheel rotating above
a lit candle. The arrows indicate the direction of air flow.
In which direction will both dogs move?
(1) east (2) west (3) north (4) south
14. The illustration below shows a student
approaching the door to a building.
Which energy transformation is best shown in this diagram?
(1) heat to mechanical (3) sound to heat
(2) mechanical to light (4) heat to sound
18. Which two factors determine the gravitational attraction
between two objects?
(1) time and temperature (3) shape and orbital speed
(2) color and hardness (4) mass and distance apart
Which two simple machines are being used
to enable the student to reach the door?
(1) inclined plane and pulley
(2) lever and wheel-and-axle
(3) pulley and lever
(4) wheel-and-axle and inclined
15. A television set changes electrical energy to
sound and light energy. In this process, some
(1) created (3) changed to matter
(2) destroyed (4) changed to heat
16. Which two factors determine the pull of gravitational attraction between two objects?
(1) time and temperature
(2) shape and orbital speed
(3) color and hardness
(4) mass and distance apart
19. The diagram below shows a student using a spring
scale to pull a wooden block up a ramp that is resting on a
stack of books.
Which change would require more force to move the wooden
block up the ramp?
(1) Have the student use two hands.
(2) Reduce the mass of the wooden block.
(3) Restack the books so the thinnest book is on the bottom.
(4) Glue sandpaper to the surface of the ramp.
20. The wheels and gears of a machine are greased in
order to decrease _____________.
(1) potential energy (3) output
(2) efficiency (4) friction
21. The diagram below shows a boulder
rolling down a hill into a valley and then up
the opposite hill.
24. Which setup below would require the least force to
lift a 100-gram mass a distance of 10 centimeters?
At which position does the boulder have
the greatest kinetic energy?
(1) A (3) C
(2) B (4) D
22. The drawing below shows a person about
to lift a book using a ruler and pencil.
*Base your answers to questions 25 & 26 on the diagram,
that shows two students ready to dive into a pool.
This drawing illustrates an example of which
(1) gear (2) pulley (3) balance (4) lever
23. Which object represents a simple machine?
25. Explain why student B has more potential energy than
26. Student A dives from the board into the water. Explain
why student A’s kinetic energy decreases as the student
enters the water.
STUDENT B IS HIGHER UP = PE
WATER SLOWS HIS MOVEMENT.
*Base your answers to questions 27-30 on the illustration below, which shows a number of activities
happening on a sunny day.
27. What is the original source of energy for all activities?
28. Identify one activity that requires the use of fossil fuels.
29. Identify one renewable resource in the diagram.
30. An energy transformation occurs when one form of
energy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces below to
describe an energy transformation that occurs as the
children play baseball.
_________________________________ is changed to
CAR, GAS GRILL, FUEL TRUCK
*Base your answers to questions 31-33 on diagram 1 & 2 below. The amount of force required to keep
the same block of wood moving across a tabletop is shown in the diagrams.
31. What is the name of the device in the
diagrams used to measure force.
MORE WOOD, HEAVIER OBJECT, MAKE SURFACE ROUGH
CHANGES SLIDING FRICTION TO ROLLING FRICTION.
*Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a set of materials that a science teacher used to demonstrate motion. The rubber band has been stretched with a string that has been tied to the nail. A weight is resting on the platform. The platform is resting on several round pencils on a tabletop.
34. On the diagram draw an arrow to represent the direction the wooden platform will move when the lit match burns through the string and the weight is propelled from the platform.
35. The table below lists four changes to the materials in the diagram. Will the changes cause the distance the wooden
platform moves to decrease, increase, or remain the same? For each change in the left column, circle your answer in the
*Base your answers to questions 36 &37 on the diagram of a moving car below. The diagram shows
36. What is the sequence of the energy transformations
represented in the diagram?
(1) mechanical → chemical → solar
(2) solar → electrical → mechanical
(3) mechanical → electrical → solar
(4) solar → chemical → electrical
37. State one advantage to the environment by using this car instead of a car powered by fossil fuel.
DECREASE POLLUTION, SAVE ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT…
*Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information and diagram below.
A rock hanging from a spring scale is being lowered into a graduated cylinder containing water. Figure A shows the reading on the spring scale before the rock is lowered into the water. Figure B shows the reading on the spring scale when the rock is in the water. The reading on the spring scale in figure A is greater than the reading on the spring scale in figure B.
38. Explain why the spring scale shows a greater reading in figure A than in figure B.
THE FORCE OF WATER (BUOYANCY) PUSHING UP ON THE ROCK.
39. Explain why placing the rock in the water causes the water level to rise.
THE ROCK DISPLACES THE WATER MAKING THE VOLUME OF THE WATER RISE.
*Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below. The diagram shows wind turbines that are used
to generate electricity.
40. Describe one advantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to produce electricity.
41. Describe one disadvantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to generate electricity.
IT PROVIDES CLEAN ENERGY (NO POLLUTANTS).
IT DEPENDS ON WIND CONDITIONS ONLY.
47. The diagram below shows a spinning water sprinkler.
Water comes through a hose and is sprayed by the sprinkler.
Which principle best explains why the sprinkler spins?
42. Moving water in a river is considered a renewable resource because it:
(1) carries dissolved oxygen
(2) easily erodes sediments
(3) is made of natural gas
(4) can be recycled by nature over time
43. Which event is a chemical change?
(1) The baseball strikes the roof.
(2) The roof of the car dents.
(3) The paint cracks and chips.
(4) The exposed metal rusts
44. Which process is an example of a physical change?
(1) wood burning (3) ice melting
(2) iron rusting (4) milk souring
(1) Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
(2) Solids are usually more dense than liquids.
(3) Energy is released when water condenses.
(4) Substances expand when heated & contract when cooled.
48. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable?
(1) oil (2) moving water (3) sunlight (4) biomass
49. The gravitational force between two objects depends
on the distance between the objects and each object’s
(1) mass (3) pressure
(2) volume (4) temperature
45. Which statement best describes the energy changes
that occur while a child is riding on a sled down a steep, snow-covered hill?
Kinetic energy decreases and potential
(2) Kinetic energy increases
and potential energy decreases.
(3) Both potential energy and
kinetic energy decrease.
(4) Both potential energy and
kinetic energy increase
50. Which sequence of energy transformations occurs
after a battery-operated flashlight is turned on?
(1) electrical → light → chemical
(2) electrical → chemical → light
(3) chemical → light → electrical
(4) chemical → electrical → light
46. The diagram below shows a hammer being used by a person to remove a nail from a piece of wood.
51. All matter is made up of particles called
(1) cells (3) atoms
(2) molecules (4) compounds
52. The force of an object, with a certain mass accelerating
at a certain rate, can be determined by using the equation below.
force = mass ╳ acceleration
Which object would have the greatest force?
(1) a 5-kg object accelerating at 10 m/s2
(2) a 5-kg object accelerating at 20 m/s2
(3) a 20-kg object accelerating at 4 m/s2
(4) a 20-kg object accelerating at 3 m/s2
The hammer is being used as which type of
(1) wheel and axle (3) lever
(2) inclined plane (4) pulley
53. The diagrams below show smooth blocks of wood being pushed across the same surface. The mass of the block
and amount of force applied are labeled in each diagram. In which diagram would the block of wood have the
54. The graph below shows the distance traveled by four cars, A, B, C, and D, over a period of time,
*The average speed of a moving object can be determined by using the equation below.
Average speed = distance or v = d / t
Which car traveled at an average speed of 20 kilometers per hour?
(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D
*Base your answers to questions 55 & 56 on the information and diagram below.
The diagram below shows a toy airplane. The propeller is turned twenty times, which twists the rubber band connected to it.
When the propeller is released, the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns at a high speed, enabling the airplane to fly.
55. What type of energy results when the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns, enabling the plane to fly?
56. Identify one change that could be made that would make
the toy airplane fly at a different speed.
KINETIC ENERGY / MECHANICAL ENERGY
WINDING IT MORE (INCREASE POTENTIAL).
57. A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target. In which diagram does the bow and
arrow have the greatest amount of potential energy?
62. The diagram shows a lever that can be used to lift
a person. The fulcrum is the point where the lever pivots.
58. The diagram below shows a home with a solar
Describe one change that could be made to the lever to
decrease the input force needed to lift the person.
What is the original source of energy
for this heating system?
(1) heated water (3) sunlight
(2) heated air (4) water pump
MOVE THE FULCRUM TO THE RIGHT
59. Which energy source is considered
(1) moving water (3) wind
(2) fossil fuel (4) biomass
60. Which type of energy in gasoline is
transformed into mechanical energy in
a motorcycle engine?
(1) chemical (3) magnetic
(2) nuclear (4) electrical
61. A student pushes against a tree with a
force of 10 newtons (N). The tree does not
move. What is the amount of force exerted
by the tree on the student?
(1) 0 N (3) 10 N
(2) 5 N (4) 20 N
*Base your answers to questions 63 & 64 on the diagrams
below. The diagrams show a student using a bow and
arrow. The bow string on the bow is used to propel the
63. State one change the student could make, without
changing the angle at which the bow is held, so that the
arrow would travel a greater distance.
64. Describe how gravity affects the path of the arrow
after it has been released.
PULL THE STRING BACK MORE.
IT IMMEDIATELY PULLS DOWN ON IT.
65. The diagrams below show two ways of loading a box into a truck.
The person using the track with the rollers uses less energy to load the box because the rollers reduce the
(1) mass of the box (3) force of gravity
(2) distance traveled by the box (4) force of friction
*Base your answers to questions 66 & 67 on the diagram below. The diagram shows one type of power facility that
provides electricity for use in houses.
66. What phase change occurs in the boiler?
____________________ phase to
67. Name one fossil fuel that may be burned in this furnace.
GAS (WATER VAPOR)
OIL, NATURAL GAS, COAL