Ecology
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Ecology. What is Ecology?. Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their surroundings. Biosphere. Made up of land, water, and air or atmosphere. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere make up ecology.

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What is ecology
What is Ecology?

Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their surroundings.


Biosphere
Biosphere

  • Made up of land, water, and air or atmosphere.

  • Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere make up ecology.



Species
Species factors in an ecosystem.

  • A group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

  • Example: frogs

  • Non-example: mules


Question
Question? factors in an ecosystem.

  • Why isn’t a mule an example of a species?


Population
Population factors in an ecosystem.

  • A group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in the same area.

  • Example: group of frogs


Community
Community factors in an ecosystem.

  • A group of different populations that live together in a defined area.

  • Example: frogs, fish, and plants (in a pond)


Ecosystem
Ecosystem factors in an ecosystem.

  • Collection of all organisms that live in a particular place, together with the non-living or physical environment.

  • Example: pond


Biome
Biome factors in an ecosystem.

  • A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.

  • Example: desert, tundra, rain forest.


How does it all work together
How does it all work together? factors in an ecosystem.


What does bio mean
What does BIO mean? factors in an ecosystem.

LIFE!!!

  • biotic factors – any living thing that effects an organism.

  • abiotic factors – physical or nonliving things that shape on ecosystem. (weather, ph, soil)


Niche
Niche factors in an ecosystem.

  • The environment an organism lives in and how it uses that environment.



Autotrophs
Autotrophs factors in an ecosystem.

  • Auto – self

  • Troph – nutrition/energy

  • Organisms that make their own food for energy.

  • Examples: plants, some bacteria

  • 2 types:

    • Chemoautotroph – make own food using chemicals.

    • Photoautotroph – make own food using light.

  • Also called PRODUCERS


Heterotrophs
Heterotrophs factors in an ecosystem.

  • Hetero – different

  • Troph – nutrition/energy

  • Organisms that rely on other organisms for food or energy (eat other organisms)

  • Also called CONSUMERS

  • Examples are….


Carnivore
Carnivore factors in an ecosystem.

  • Organisms that eat only meat.

  • Example: fox


Herbivore
Herbivore factors in an ecosystem.

  • Organisms that eat only plants.

  • Example: grasshoppers


Omnivore
Omnivore factors in an ecosystem.

  • Organisms that eat both plants and animals.

  • Example: bird


Detritivore
Detritivore factors in an ecosystem.

  • Organisms that eat dead or decaying matter.

  • Example: vulture


Decomposer
Decomposer factors in an ecosystem.

  • Organisms that break down dead or decaying matter externally, then take it in.

  • Example: fungus


Food chain
Food Chain factors in an ecosystem.

carnivore

Heterotroph/3rd level consumer

Heterotroph/2nd level consumer

omnivore

herbivore

Heterotroph/1st level consumer

Autotroph/producer


Trophic levels
Trophic Levels factors in an ecosystem.

  • Energy levels in a food chain or food web.

  • Each trophic level receive 10% of the previous trophic level’s energy.

  • 10 percent!!!!!


Food chain1
Food Chain factors in an ecosystem.

0.1%

carnivore

Heterotroph/3rd level consumer

1%

Heterotroph/2nd level consumer

omnivore

Trophic levels

10%

herbivore

Heterotroph/1st level consumer

100%

Autotroph/producer


Symbiotic relationships
Symbiotic Relationships factors in an ecosystem.

  • Symbiosis – any relationship between two organisms that live closely together.

  • 5 types……


Predation
Predation factors in an ecosystem.

  • An interaction where one organism hunts and kills another.

    • Predator – hunter

    • Prey – food

  • Example: lion hunting gazelle


Mutualism
Mutualism factors in an ecosystem.

  • A relationship where both organisms benefit.

  • Example: bees and flowers.


Commensalism
Commensalism factors in an ecosystem.

  • A relationship where one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed.

  • Example: a bird and a tree


Parasitism
Parasitism factors in an ecosystem.

  • A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.

  • Example: flea & dog


Competition
Competition factors in an ecosystem.

  • A relationship where one organism competes with another for food, shelter, mate, etc.


Carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle factors in an ecosystem.


Water cycle
Water Cycle factors in an ecosystem.


Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle factors in an ecosystem.


Carrying capacity
Carrying capacity factors in an ecosystem.


Food chain2
Food Chain factors in an ecosystem.


Food web
Food Web factors in an ecosystem.


Trophic levels1
Trophic factors in an ecosystem. Levels


Biomes determined by climate temperature and rainfall
BIOMES factors in an ecosystem.Determined by climate(temperature and rainfall)


Desert
Desert factors in an ecosystem.


Tundra
Tundra factors in an ecosystem.


Rainforest
Rainforest factors in an ecosystem.


Deciduous forest
Deciduous Forest factors in an ecosystem.


Coniferous forest
Coniferous Forest factors in an ecosystem.


Aquatic
Aquatic factors in an ecosystem.


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