Amino acids proteins and enzymes
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Amino Acids Proteins, and Enzymes. Types of Proteins Amino Acids The Peptide Bond. Types of Proteins. TypeExamples Structuraltendons, cartilage, hair, nails Contractilemuscles Transporthemoglobin Storagemilk Hormonalinsulin, growth hormone Enzymecatalyzes reactions in cells

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Amino Acids Proteins, and Enzymes

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Amino acids proteins and enzymes

Amino Acids Proteins, andEnzymes

Types of Proteins

Amino Acids

The Peptide Bond


Types of proteins

Types of Proteins

TypeExamples

  • Structuraltendons, cartilage, hair, nails

  • Contractilemuscles

  • Transporthemoglobin

  • Storagemilk

  • Hormonalinsulin, growth hormone

  • Enzymecatalyzes reactions in cells

  • Protectionimmune response


Amino acids

Amino Acids

  • Building blocks of proteins

  • Carboxylic acid group

  • Amino group

  • Side group R gives unique characteristics

    Rside chain

    I

    H2H—C —COOH

    I

    H


Examples of amino acids

Examples of Amino Acids

H

I

H2N—C —COOH

I

Hglycine

CH3

I

H2N—C —COOH

I

Halanine


Types of amino acids

Types of Amino Acids

Nonpolar R = H, CH3, alkyl groups, aromatic

O

Polar ll

R = –CH2OH, –CH2SH, –CH2C–NH2,

(polar groups with –O-, -SH, -N-)

Polar/Acidic

R = –CH2COOH, or -COOH

Polar/ Basic

R = –CH2CH2NH2


Learning check aa1

Learning Check AA1

Identify each as (1) polar or (2) nonpolar

A. NH2–CH2–COOH (Glycine)

CH3

|

CH–OH

|

B. NH2–CH–COOH (Serine)


Solution aa1

Solution AA1

Identify each as (1) polar or (2) nonpolar

A.(2) NH2–CH2–COOH (Glycine)

CH3

|

CH–OH

|

B. (1)NH2–CH–COOH (Serine)


Essential amino acids

Essential Amino Acids

  • 10 amino acids not synthesized by the body

  • arg, his, ile, leu, lys, met, phe, thr, trp, val

  • Must obtain from the diet

  • All in diary products

  • 1 or more missing in grains

    and vegetables


Amino acids as acids and bases

Amino Acids as Acids and Bases

  • Ionization of the –NH2 and the –COOH group

  • Zwitterion has both a + and – charge

  • Zwitterion is neutral overall

    +

    NH2–CH2–COOHH3N–CH2–COO–

    glycine Zwitterion of glycine


Ph and ionization

pH and ionization

H+OH–

++

H3N–CH2–COOHH3N–CH2–COO–H2N–CH2–COO–

Positive ionzwitterionNegative ion

Low pH neutral pHHigh pH


Learning check aa2

Learning Check AA2

CH3 CH3

+

H3N–CH–COOH H2N–CH2–COO–

(1)(2)

Select from the above structures

A. Alanine in base.

B. Alanine in acid.


Solution aa2

Solution AA2

CH3 CH3

+

H3N–CH–COOH H2N–CH2–COO–

(1)(2)

Select from the above structures

  • (2) Alanine in base.

  • (1) Alanine in acid.


The peptide bond

The Peptide Bond

Amide bond formed by the –COOH of an amino acid and the –NH2 of the next amino acid

O CH3

+ || + |

NH3–CH2–COH + H3N–CH–COO–

O CH3

+ |||

NH3–CH2–C – N–CH–COO–

| peptide bond

H


Peptides

Peptides

  • Amino acids linked by amide (peptide) bonds

    Gly Lys Phe Arg Ser

    H2N- -COOH

    endPeptide bonds end

    Glycyllysylphenylalanylarginylserine


Learning check aa3

Learning Check AA3

What are the possible tripeptides formed from one each of leucine, glycine, and alanine?


Solution aa3

Solution AA3

Tripeptides possible from one each of leucine, glycine, and alanine

Leu-Gly-Ala

Leu-Ala-Gly

Ala-Leu-Gly

Ala-Gly-Leu

Gly-Ala-Leu

Gly-Leu-Ala


Learning check aa4

Learning Check AA4

Write the three-letter abbreviations for the following tetrapeptide:


Solution aa4

Solution AA4

Ala-Leu-Cys-Met


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