Amino acids proteins and enzymes
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Amino Acids Proteins, and Enzymes. Types of Proteins Amino Acids The Peptide Bond. Types of Proteins. Type Examples Structural tendons, cartilage, hair, nails Contractile muscles Transport hemoglobin Storage milk Hormonal insulin, growth hormone Enzyme catalyzes reactions in cells

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Amino acids proteins and enzymes
Amino Acids Proteins, andEnzymes

Types of Proteins

Amino Acids

The Peptide Bond


Types of proteins
Types of Proteins

Type Examples

  • Structural tendons, cartilage, hair, nails

  • Contractile muscles

  • Transport hemoglobin

  • Storage milk

  • Hormonal insulin, growth hormone

  • Enzyme catalyzes reactions in cells

  • Protection immune response


Amino acids
Amino Acids

  • Building blocks of proteins

  • Carboxylic acid group

  • Amino group

  • Side group R gives unique characteristics

    R side chain

    I

    H2H—C —COOH

    I

    H


Examples of amino acids
Examples of Amino Acids

H

I

H2N—C —COOH

I

H glycine

CH3

I

H2N—C —COOH

I

H alanine


Types of amino acids
Types of Amino Acids

Nonpolar R = H, CH3, alkyl groups, aromatic

O

Polar ll

R = –CH2OH, –CH2SH, –CH2C–NH2,

(polar groups with –O-, -SH, -N-)

Polar/Acidic

R = –CH2COOH, or -COOH

Polar/ Basic

R = –CH2CH2NH2


Learning check aa1
Learning Check AA1

Identify each as (1) polar or (2) nonpolar

A. NH2–CH2–COOH (Glycine)

CH3

|

CH–OH

|

B. NH2–CH–COOH (Serine)


Solution aa1
Solution AA1

Identify each as (1) polar or (2) nonpolar

A.(2) NH2–CH2–COOH (Glycine)

CH3

|

CH–OH

|

B. (1)NH2–CH–COOH (Serine)


Essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids

  • 10 amino acids not synthesized by the body

  • arg, his, ile, leu, lys, met, phe, thr, trp, val

  • Must obtain from the diet

  • All in diary products

  • 1 or more missing in grains

    and vegetables


Amino acids as acids and bases
Amino Acids as Acids and Bases

  • Ionization of the –NH2 and the –COOH group

  • Zwitterion has both a + and – charge

  • Zwitterion is neutral overall

    +

    NH2–CH2–COOHH3N–CH2–COO–

    glycine Zwitterion of glycine


Ph and ionization
pH and ionization

H+ OH–

+ +

H3N–CH2–COOHH3N–CH2–COO–H2N–CH2–COO–

Positive ionzwitterionNegative ion

Low pH neutral pH High pH


Learning check aa2
Learning Check AA2

CH3 CH3

+

H3N–CH–COOH H2N–CH2–COO–

(1) (2)

Select from the above structures

A. Alanine in base.

B. Alanine in acid.


Solution aa2
Solution AA2

CH3 CH3

+

H3N–CH–COOH H2N–CH2–COO–

(1) (2)

Select from the above structures

  • (2) Alanine in base.

  • (1) Alanine in acid.


The peptide bond
The Peptide Bond

Amide bond formed by the –COOH of an amino acid and the –NH2 of the next amino acid

O CH3

+ || + |

NH3–CH2–COH + H3N–CH–COO–

O CH3

+ |||

NH3–CH2–C – N–CH–COO–

| peptide bond

H


Peptides
Peptides

  • Amino acids linked by amide (peptide) bonds

    Gly Lys Phe Arg Ser

    H2N- -COOH

    end Peptide bonds end

    Glycyllysylphenylalanylarginylserine


Learning check aa3
Learning Check AA3

What are the possible tripeptides formed from one each of leucine, glycine, and alanine?


Solution aa3
Solution AA3

Tripeptides possible from one each of leucine, glycine, and alanine

Leu-Gly-Ala

Leu-Ala-Gly

Ala-Leu-Gly

Ala-Gly-Leu

Gly-Ala-Leu

Gly-Leu-Ala


Learning check aa4
Learning Check AA4

Write the three-letter abbreviations for the following tetrapeptide:


Solution aa4
Solution AA4

Ala-Leu-Cys-Met


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