Alzheimer s disease
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Alzheimer’s Disease. Discovery. 1901 Dr. Alois Alzheimer Auguste Frau (died in 1906) Alzheimer found - shrunken brain - unique microscopic deposits. Quick Facts. One out of Seven 71+ has dementia 70% of dementia is Alzheimer’s 5 million Americans

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Alzheimer’s Disease

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Alzheimer s disease

Alzheimer’s Disease


Discovery

Discovery

  • 1901

  • Dr. Alois Alzheimer

  • Auguste Frau (died in 1906)

  • Alzheimer found

    - shrunken brain

    - unique microscopic deposits


Quick facts

Quick Facts

  • One out of Seven 71+ has dementia

  • 70% of dementia is Alzheimer’s

  • 5 million Americans

  • 20 million worldwide

  • Direct and indirect costs of dementia = $148 billion annually

  • No cure

  • Average life expectancy is 8 years past onset of AD


Seven stages of ad

Seven Stages of AD

  • Normal function

  • Very mild cognitive decline

  • Mild cognitive decline

  • Moderate cognitive decline

  • Moderately severe cognitive decline

  • Severe cognitive decline

  • Very severe cognitive decline


Diagnosing ad

Diagnosing AD

  • No concrete diagnostic tool

  • Main symptom is deteriorating short term memory

  • Accurate 90% of the time

    - physical exams

    - blood and urine samples

    - PET scans

    - structured interviews


Changes in the brain

Changes in the Brain

  • Decrease in size and activity

  • Build up of plaques

  • Masses of neurofibrillary tangles


Changes in size and activity

Changes in Size and Activity

  • Dramatically smaller brain

  • Much less brain activity

  • Hippocampus severely deteriorated


Plaques

Plaques

  • Amyloid plaques

  • Collection of Aβ peptide

    • Cleaved from Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP)

    • β-secretase cleaves at the N-terminus → APPsb and c99

    • C99 cleaved by γ-secretase→ Aβ peptide and a p3 peptide


Neurofibrillary tangles nft

Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFT)

  • Built by paired helical filaments (PHF)

  • Tau is the main protein in PHF

    • Abnormally phosphorylated in AD patients

    • Tau protein kinases I and II phosphorylate tau

    • Abnormal tau collects as NFT


Other ad factors

Other AD Factors

  • Amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs)

  • Free-radicals

  • Chronic inflammation


Treatment

Treatment

  • No cure

  • Acetylcholineasterase inhibitors

    - Donepezil

    - Rivastigmine

    - Glantamine

    - Increase the amount of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft

  • Memantine: inhibits the NMDA receptor for clearer thinking


The search for a cure

The search for a cure…

  • Prevent the toxic intermediates from forming during amyloid aggregation

  • Inhibit Aβ peptide metabolism.

  • Find an effective means of reducing oxidative stress and inflammation

  • Treat the plaques and NFT


In conclusion

In Conclusion

  • This is a terrible disease

  • Current treatment plans are not nearly effective enough

  • It is a problem that will continue to grow


Sources

Sources

  • http://www.drugdevelopment-technology.com/projects/flurizan/flurizan5.html

  • http://www.bioscience.org/news/scientis/alzheim1.htm

  • http://www.photonics.com/content/news/2007/April/4/87093.aspx

  • http://www.smh.com.au/news/health/pills-in-poop-is-the-scoop/2007/11/14/1194766740042.html

  • www.alz.org

  • http://www.templateswise.com/detail/link-56.html

  • www.robertocampus.com

  • www.northwestern.edu

  • http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=1831398&page=1


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